Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) was firstly introduced by Kehlet in 1997 to reduce the length of hospital stay in open sigmoid resections. In China, the first ERAS Congress was established in 2015 and since then a series of Chinese Experts Consensuses has been published regarding this topic. Today, ERAS has infiltrated a broad range of surgical specialties and these years various guidelines have been published and updated by experts from all over the world. Although ERAS protocols have been successfully implemented across many subjects and institutions, the uptake of ERAS in obstetrics is lagged behind. Not until 2018, ERAS society released guidelines for cesarean delivery (CD) and to date relevant data are limited in the literature.
Purposes of Enhanced Recovery After Cesarean Delivery
CD is the most common major abdominal surgery in the world and women, however, face dual challenges after CD of being post-partum and post-operative. The enhanced recovery after cesarean (ERAC) delivery protocols may effectively address these advantages for women after CD.
Accelerating recovery and decreasing the length of hospital stay
The global CD rate reached an unprecedented high of 21% in 2015 and did not seem to decrease these years. In the United States, the CD rate increased to 32% in 2017 with over 1.27 million procedures performed annually. In China, even higher rate of 36.7% was observed in 2018. Although great efforts have been made to decrease the CD rate, the improved peri-operative care of obstetric patients is also crucial. As the majority of obstetric patients are young and healthy, they are potential for rapid recovery and motivated to return to normal state of functioning to care for the baby. On the contrary, enhanced recovery may benefit healthcare system by reducing waste of scarce medical resources and reduce the overall cost of healthcare. Evidence has shown that ERAC protocols can help reducing the length of hospital stay (LOS) by 7.8% or 4.86 h overall (P < 0.001) and decrease the total post-operative cost by 8.4% or $642.85 per patient overall (P < 0.001).
Improving maternal outcomes and satisfaction
Unlike other surgical specialties, CD may have some unique characteristics. One is unexpectable, so it is difficult to make a plan. Unplanned CD is associated with negative emotion and affected mother-infant bonding, and makes mother feel sadness, disappointment, and even depressed. Even when CD is planned, women also face the unique dual challenges: recovering from major abdominal surgery and taking care of the baby. Efforts to enhance post-operative recovery may help to improve bonding and breastfeeding, as well as reduce the incidence of post-partum depression.[11–13]
Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality
CD is associated with the increasing risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Nearly one-half of the maternal deaths occur in the post-partum period and are related to intra-operative complications. Hypertensive disorders, cardiovascular diseases, hemorrhage, and infection are the leading causes of maternal death. However, more than 60% of pregnancy-related deaths might be preventable. So the ERAS society recommended the “optimized” pathway specifically for woman who has the priori modifiable risks to optimize the management of these maternal comorbidities (ERAS CD Expanded Program), including hypertension, diabetes, anemia, smoking, etc. These complex women may need a team-based peri-operative care to reduce the operative risks and enhance their outcomes.
Limiting opioid use and prescribing post-operatively
Opioids are frequently used and prescribed after CD, but they should be used at lowest effective dose for shortest duration to minimize the potential risks to the mother as well as the breastfed baby.[18,19] American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists committee recently released recommendations for post-partum pain management. A stepwise, multi-modal and non-opioid analgesia approach was recommended as the first-line therapy after CD. Similarly, ERAS society also recommended an opioid-sparing, multi-modal post-operative protocol with the combination of pre-operative education and share-decision making intervention to limit opioid use in obstetrics.[17,21] For anesthesiologists, we should make efforts to optimize the pain management ensuring patients get effective pain control while limiting opioid use to avoid the potential risks of excessive opioid exposure including opioid withdrawal syndrome and the opioid crisis.
Developing an optimized ERAC protocol
With the increasingly robust literature regarding ERAS in general, many organizations began to address ERAS for CD. Similar to other ERAS protocols, ERAC is also an interdisciplinary approach including anesthesiology, obstetricians, nurses, neonatologists, pediatricians, pharmacists, hospital administration, and the supporting systems. The principles of ERAC cover the whole phase of CD, but there is wide variability in elements of published ERAC protocols [Table 1]. Society guidelines for CD have two specific pathways. The “focused” (normal) pathway for both scheduled and unscheduled CD, starting at 30 to 60 min before incision to hospital discharge, summarizes the evidence-based pre-, intra-, post-operative care elements and recommendations [Table 1]. While the “optimized” (complex) pathway, as mentioned before, discussed broad antenatal topics of patient education and counseling for those complex and comorbid women, and the immediate neonatal care at delivery.[3,17,21] More recently, Society of Obstetric and Perinatology (SOAP) released ERAC Consensus Statement developed for scheduled CD, but some of the elements can also be applied to unscheduled CD [Table 1]. The committee identifies a few essential elements which are indispensable in ERAC (emphasized by asterisks*) and provides a series of patient education materials to help with the successful implementation of the protocol. These excellent resources provide details to develop the ERAC pathway in your institution which describes many dimensions of enhanced recovery goals.
Evaluation of the Quality of Recovery After CD (ObsQoR-11)
Quality of recovery (QoR) score QoR-40 and QoR-15 have been extensively used and validated as tools to measure the recovery outcomes after non-obstetric surgeries. However, both of them are not maternal-focused and do not cover some aspects related to CD. For example, most CDs are performed under neuraxial anesthesia. The recovery aspects of neuraxial anesthesia are a bit different from that of general anesthesia. Besides some physiological variables, we should take the physical, emotive, cognitive, and functional outcomes into account. For maternal population, the ability to care for the baby is the key element of recovery after CD. Recently, Ciechanowicz et al developed the first obstetric-specific, 11-item QoR score which derived from QoR-40. ObsQoR-11 can evaluate the quality of recovery by measuring several key elements, including physical comfort (nausea and vomiting, dizziness, shivering), pain relief, physical independence (mobilizing, personal hygiene), and emotional state (in control, comfortable), with some items related to neuraxial anesthesia and the ability to care for the baby (breastfeeding, holding the baby). The ObsQoR-11 is a reliable, valid, and responsive tool for assessment in obstetrics. However, the QoR-11 is not generalizable and developed only for the scheduled population. Further work is warranted to investigate its validation in unscheduled population.
Role of Anesthesiologist in ERAC
When we develop our ERAC protocols, we need to think about the interventions according to the elements in ObsQoR-11 tool. For anesthesiologists, we may focus on these specific components which can be tackled by us and ultimately improve the quality of ERAC.
Management of peri-operative hypotension
In the 2016 American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines for Obstetric Anesthesia, neuraxial techniques including epidural, spinal, and combined spinal-epidural are recommended for most CD. However, these techniques are associated with some maternal and neonatal/fetal side effects. Maternal hypotension, primarily caused by vasodilation, is commonly seen during CD. The severity of hypotension depends on the speed of onset of neuraxial anesthesia and the dose of neuraxial medication. Maternal hypotension leads to a series of symptoms including intra-operative nausea and vomiting (IONV), dyspnea and dizziness frequently after severe hypotension. Severe hypotension may decrease the uteroplacental flow and increase the incidence of fetal acidosis which may be detrimental to the fetus.
Fluid therapy and vasopressors are considered the gold standard for treatment and prevention of maternal hypotension. Both colloid preloading and crystalloid coloading can be used to prevent maternal hypotension to some extent.[27,30,31] But unfortunately, it is still unclear what is the most optimal fluid therapy and whether crystalloid or colloid or both to be effective enough to prevent hypotension. Both too little and too excessive fluid during CD can have adverse effects. There are mounting evidence supporting that fluid therapy guided by flow base hemodynamic monitors (eg, CO monitors, echo for assessing volume status, SV estimation) can improve peri-operative outcomes. But the implementation in obstetric population is sparse. Vasopressors, however, can effectively prevent and treat hypotension and are recommended to be used routinely and preferably prophylactically. Pure α-agonist drug (phenylephrine) is the first-line vasopressor as it can directly counteract vasodilation. Although those with a mild β-agonist drug (norepinephrine, metaraminol) may be more beneficial for hemodynamics, more evidence-based data are need to support its value in obstetrics. The effective norepinephrine bolus dose to prevent hypotension in 90% of women undergoing elective CD (ED90) is 6 μg. Recently, Ngan Kee found the estimated dose equivalent to phenylephrine 100 μg was norepinephrine 8 μg when given as a bolus to treat the first episode of hypotension. Moreover, changing position of parturient after spinal anesthesia by tilting the operating table or using a wedge may improve the maternal hemodynamics,[35,36] but more evidence is needed to confirm these findings. By combining use of vasopressor, fluid therapy, and tilt-position, the ultimate target aim is to maintain the systolic arterial pressure above 90% of baseline.
Prevention and treatment of intra- and post-operative nausea and vomiting
Nausea and vomiting are frequent during CD than other non-obstetric surgery. There are many underlying causes. Spinal anesthesia induced acute sympathetic blockade may hyperactivate the gastro-intestinal tract. Acute hypotension causes cerebral ischemia and activates the vomiting center. Peri-operative use of opioids and some surgical procedures (uterine exteriorization, intra-abdominal saline irrigation) are also contributing factors.[38,39] IONV/post-operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a major stressor for women and their family. IONV may offer significant challenge to the operating surgeon and also a potential risk of aspiration. Several interventions are commonly used for IONV/PONV. Prophylactic vasopressor infusion combined with fluid loading may decrease the incidence of hypotension-associated IONV and maintain uteroplacental perfusion. Combination of at least two IV anti-emetics with different mechanism of action, for example, 5HT3 antagonists, glucocorticoid, and D2 receptors antagonists, is suggested.[23,41] A meta-analysis showed that 4 to 5 mg dose regimen of systemic dexamethasone can effectively prevent PONV not IONV due to delayed onset of action. While metoclopramide (10 mg) alone decreased IONV not PONV because of the low efficacy. Generally, combinations of treatments are better than single agents for IONV as well as early PONV.
Prevention of hypothermia
Peri-operative hypothermia (core temperature <36°C) can occur rapidly after spinal anesthesia during CD and the thermoregulation will be altered for several hours. In general population, peri-operative hypothermia is associated with poor outcomes including infection, myocardial ischemia, coagulopathy, shivering, reduced drug metabolism, prolonged LOS, and poor patient satisfaction. However, the outcomes in obstetric patients have rarely been investigated as core temperature is difficult to be monitored during CD. But neonatal hypothermia may lead to respiratory distress syndrome, hypoglycemia, and neonatal mortality (especially in preterm and very low birth weight).[3,44] ERAS society recommended that “Appropriate patient temperature is needed to apply warming devices and avoid hypothermia (recommendation grade: strong).” Active warming (IV fluid combined with force-air warming) can effectively reduce peri-operative hypothermia and shivering, improve maternal thermal comfort, facilitate bonding, and faster PACU times.[45,46] A modest increase of OR temperature (>72°F/22°C) may reduce the rate of maternal and neonatal hypothermia.
Multi-modal peri-operative pain management
Peri-operative pain control is the key component of ERAS protocol, as high pain will make it difficult for mother to care for the baby, delay early mobilization, and even induce anxiety and depression. Multi-modal peri-operative pain management including various techniques and medications should be used to reduce pain, enhance recovery and reduce opioid use. Long-acting neuraxial opioid (morphine) is the gold standard for pain control during and after CD but companied by some adverse effects including pruritus, nausea, and respiratory depression. Evidence showed that approximately 50% women experienced mild respiratory depression after neuraxial morphine. Recently, the SOAP committee developed a consensus statement to promote patient risk stratification and patient-centered respiratory monitoring after neuraxial morphine administration. Opioids can also be given intravenously or intramuscularly. But much attention should be paid to maternal and neonatal adverse effects, especially to breastfed infant. The US Food and Drug Administration advised that codeine should be avoided in breastfeeding women due to the morphine poisoning to the infants. Scheduled NSAIDS (unless there are contraindication) and acetaminophen decreasing opioids and side effects by 30% to 50%, should be considered as the mainstay of analgesia after CD.[23,51] Local anesthetic techniques including wound infiltration, nerve block (eg, quadratus lumborum or transversus abdominis plane [TAP] block) with ultrasound guidance may provide good analgesic effect. A recent study showed that TAP block provided clinically similar outcomes (including numerical pain rating scores, the need for rescue medication, side effects, and patient satisfaction) as intra-thecal morphine (100 μg) after CD. The quadratus lumborum block after CD was also effective for post-operative pain control as a part of a multi-modal approach. But note that these techniques are performed when neuraxial morphine cannot be given, or as a rescue technique for breakthrough post-operative pain.
Active pre-operative management of unplanned conversion of labor analgesia to cesarean delivery anesthesia
For planned or scheduled CD, anesthesiologists may be more involved in the intra- and post-operative period. But for unplanned CD, especially when the epidural catheter is in situ, the pre-operative management may be the most challenging practice for anesthesiologists to confront with. Unplanned CD in labor is urgent and can be traumatic. If the conversion or the “top-up” epidural dosing fails, delayed operation will be detrimental to the fetus and raise the risks of anesthesia-related complications. Repeated spinal anesthesia after failure conversion can lead to high level blockade and hypotension. Unplanned conversion to general anesthesia is associated with high risks of maternal aspiration, failed airway management, maternal hemorrhage, and delayed neonatal respiration. So, the reliable, safe, and timely conversion is crucial. Early and active pre-operative management of conversion should be started once the patient consents to CD. A small bolus before transport and a repeated bolus in OR can be used to test the catheter and accelerate the induction. Accurate and quick assessment of the surgical level should be made to avoid the unintended high level blockade and facilitate the anesthesiologists to make a decision whether to continue induction or choose an alternate technique. Appropriate epidural solution can also accelerate the induction. In a meta-analysis evaluating different solutions for extending epidural analgesia for emergency CD, the author recommended the combined solution of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine, fentanyl, and bicarbonate can fasten the onset. Another point of noting is that active management of labor analgesia in which the anesthesiologists participate in optimizing the quality and density of analgesia, the progress of labor, the diagnosis, and the treatment of breakthrough pain will help safe and successful conversion of labor analgesia to anesthesia.
In general, ERAC is an approach to promote maternal and neonatal healthcare through the utilization of standardized protocols and guidelines. Although this patient population is ideal for implementation of ERAC, to date, the supportive data are sparse and no completed randomized controlled trials of ERAC exist in the literatures. Among them, unplanned CD takes a high proportion in the total number of CD, large scale clinical trials are also warranted to test the feasibility of ERAC protocol in unplanned CD. One concern is that we might delay large-scale ERAS implementation until high quality data are available. But we believe that ERAC protocol is promising and should not be delayed because robust evidence has demonstrated the effectiveness and efficacy of each component of ERAC. Certainly, close audit and feedback should be used regularly to improve the quality of ERAC. The other concern is how to precisely define “recovery” after CD, as the concept “recovery” means different things to different people. We should focus on a complete recovery including post-discharge care and follow-up as it may take months for women to reach their pre-operative functional level based on their expectations and social circumstances. Interestingly, in China, there has a traditional practice after childbirth so-called “post-partum confinement” or “sitting the month” focusing mainly on social support rituals, for example, prolonged rest, special diet, and personal hygiene. Within-culture differences between Western and Asian, patient's expectation of recovery may be quite different. Finally, ERAC is just the beginning toward developing optimized pathway across pregnancy. In the future, enhanced recovery may be considered for all the women giving birth to help them quickly return to the physical and mental functioning status while reducing medical expenses and wastes of medical resources.
This work was supported by the grants from the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (Nos. 16411967400, 19401930500) and from Pudong New Area Municipal Commission of Health and Family Planning (No. PW2016D-10).
Conflicts of interests
1. Kehlet H. Multimodal approach to control postoperative pathophysiology and rehabilitation. Br J Anaesth
1997; 78:606–617. doi: 10.1093/bja/78.5.606.
2. Jiang Z, Li J. Current status of enhanced recovery after surgery
in China [in Chinese]. Chin J Gastrointestinal Surg
3. Caughey AB, Wood SL, Macones GA, Wrench IJ, Huang J, Norman M, et al. Guidelines for intraoperative care in cesarean delivery
: enhanced recovery after Surgery
Society Recommendations (part 2). Am J Obstet Gynecol
2018; 219:533–544. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2018.08.006.
4. Peahl AF, Smith R, Johnson T, Morgan D, Pearlman M. Better late than never: why obstetricians must implement enhanced recovery after cesarean. Am J Obstet Gynecol
2019; 221:117.e1–117.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.04.030.
5. Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Osterman MJ, Driscoll AK, Mathews TJ. Births: final data for 2015. Natl Vital Stat Rep
6. Boerma T, Ronsmans C, Melesse DY, Barros AJD, Barros FC, Juan L, et al. Global epidemiology of use of and disparities in caesarean sections. Lancet
2018; 392:1341–1348. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31928-7.
7. Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Osterman MJK, Driscoll AK, Drake P. Births: final data for 2017. Natl Vital Stat Rep
8. Lagrew DC, Low LK, Brennan R, Corry MP, Edmonds JK, Gilpin BG, et al. National partnership for maternal safety: consensus bundle on safe reduction of primary cesarean births-supporting intended vaginal births. Obstet Gynecol
2018; 131:503–513. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002471.
9. Pujic B, Kendrisic M, Shotwell M, Shi Y, Baysinger CL. A survey of enhanced recovery after surgery
protocols for cesarean delivery
in Serbia. Front Med (Lausanne)
2018; 5:100doi: 10.3389/fmed.2018.00100.
10. Fay EE, Hitti JE, Delgado CM, Savitsky LM, Mills EB, Slater JL, et al. An enhanced recovery after surgery
pathway for cesarean delivery
decreases hospital stay and cost. Am J Obstet Gynecol
2019; 221:349.e1–349.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.06.041.
11. Zanardo V, Soldera G, Volpe F, Giliberti L, Parotto M, Giustardi A, et al. Influence of elective and emergency cesarean delivery
on mother emotions and bonding. Early Hum Dev
2016; 99:17–20. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2016.05.006.
12. Stevens J, Schmied V, Burns E, Dahlen H. Immediate or early skin-to-skin contact after a Caesarean section: a review of the literature. Matern Child Nutr
2014; 10:456–473. doi: 10.1111/mcn.12128.
13. Nguyen J. A literature review of alternative therapies for postpartum depression. Nurs Womens Health
2017; 21:348–359. doi: 10.1016/j.nwh.2017.07.003.
14. Quinlan JD, Murphy NJ. Cesarean delivery
: counseling issues and complication management. Am Fam Physician
15. Say L, Chou D, Gemmill A, Tuncalp O, Moller AB, Daniels J, et al. Global causes of maternal death: a WHO systematic analysis. Lancet Glob Health
2014; 2:e323–e333. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70227-X.
16. Metz TD. Eliminating preventable maternal deaths in the United States: progress made and next steps. Obstet Gynecol
2018; 132:1040–1045. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002851.
17. Wilson RD, Caughey AB, Wood SL, Macones GA, Wrench IJ, Huang J, et al. Guidelines for antenatal and preoperative care in cesarean delivery
: enhanced recovery after surgery
society recommendations (part 1). Am J Obstet Gynecol
2018; 219:523.e1–523.e15. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2018.09.015.
18. Bisson DL, Newell SD, Laxton C. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Antenatal and postnatal analgesia: scientific impact paper no. 59. BJOG
2019; 126:e114–e124. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.15510.
19. Eidelman AI. Breastfeeding and the United States opioid epidemic. Breastfeed Med
2018; 13:229doi: 10.1089/bfm.2018.29089.aie.
20. ACOG committee opinion no. 742: postpartum pain management. Obstet Gynecol
2018; 132:e35–e43. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002683.
21. Macones GA, Caughey AB, Wood SL, Wrench IJ, Huang J, Norman M, et al. Guidelines for postoperative care in cesarean delivery
: enhanced recovery after surgery
(ERAS) society recommendations (part 3). Am J Obstet Gynecol
2019; 221:247.e1–247.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2019.04.012.
22. Landau R. Post-cesarean delivery
pain. Management of the opioid-dependent patient before, during and after cesarean delivery
. Int J Obstet Anesth
2019; 39:105–116. doi: 10.1016/j.ijoa.2019.01.011.
23. Committee S. Society of Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology (SOAP) Enhanced Recovery After Cesarean (ERAC) Consensus Statement. Available from: https://soap.org/education/provider-education/erac-consensus-statement-5-23-19/
. [Accessed September 20, 2019].
24. Myles PS, Weitkamp B, Jones K, Melick J, Hensen S. Validity and reliability of a postoperative quality of recovery score: the QoR-40. Br J Anaesth
2000; 84:11–15. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.bja.a013366.
25. Kleif J, Waage J, Christensen KB, Gogenur I. Systematic review of the QoR-15 score, a patient- reported outcome measure measuring quality of recovery after surgery and anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth
2018; 120:28–36. doi: 10.1016/j.bja.2017.11.013.
26. Ciechanowicz S, Setty T, Robson E, Sathasivam C, Chazapis M, Dick J, et al. Development and evaluation of an obstetric quality-of-recovery score (ObsQoR-11) after elective caesarean delivery. Br J Anaesth
2019; 122:69–78. doi: 10.1016/j.bja.2018.06.011.
27. Practice guidelines for obstetric anesthesia: an updated report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Obstetric Anesthesia and the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology. Anesthesiology
2016; 124:270–300. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000935.
28. ACOG practice bulletin no. 209: obstetric analgesia and anesthesia. Obstet Gynecol
2019; 133:e208–e225. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000003132.
29. Kinsella SM, Carvalho B, Dyer RA, Fernando R, McDonnell N, Mercier FJ, et al. International consensus statement on the management of hypotension with vasopressors during caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. Anaesthesia
2018; 73:71–92. doi: 10.1111/anae.14080.
30. Loubert C. Fluid and vasopressor management for Cesarean delivery
under spinal anesthesia: continuing professional development. Can J Anaesth
2012; 59:604–619. doi: 10.1007/s12630-012-9705-9.
31. Kaufner L, Karekla A, Henkelmann A, Welfle S, von Weizsacker K, Hellmeyer L, et al. Crystalloid coloading vs. colloid coloading in elective Caesarean section: postspinal hypotension and vasopressor consumption, a prospective, observational clinical trial. J Anesth
2019; 33:40–49. doi: 10.1007/s00540-018-2581-x.
32. Xiao W, Duan Q, Zhao L, Chi X, Wang F, Ma D, et al. Goal-directed fluid therapy may improve hemodynamic stability in parturient women under combined spinal epidural anesthesia for cesarean section
and newborn well-being. J Obstet Gynaecol Res
2015; 41:1547–1555. doi: 10.1111/jog.12769.
33. Onwochei DN, Ngan Kee WD, Fung L, Downey K, Ye XY, Carvalho JCA. Norepinephrine intermittent intravenous boluses to prevent hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery
: a sequential allocation dose-finding study. Anesth Analg
2017; 125:212–218. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000001846.
34. Ngan Kee WD. A random-allocation graded dose-response study of norepinephrine and phenylephrine for treating hypotension during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery
2017; 127:934–941. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000001880.
35. Hasanin A, Soryal R, Kaddah T, Raouf SA, Abdelwahab Y, Elshafaei K, et al. Hemodynamic effects of lateral tilt before and after spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery
: an observational study. BMC Anesthesiol
2018; 18:8doi: 10.1186/s12871-018-0473-0.
36. Cluver C, Novikova N, Hofmeyr GJ, Hall DR. Maternal position during caesarean section for preventing maternal and neonatal complications. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2013; (3):CD007623doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007623.pub3.
37. Hirose N, Kondo Y, Maeda T, Suzuki T, Yoshino A, Katayama Y. Oxygen supplementation is effective in attenuating maternal cerebral blood deoxygenation after spinal anesthesia for cesarean section
. Adv Exp Med Biol
2016; 876:471–477. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-3023-4_59.
38. Habib AS, George RB, McKeen DM, White WD, Ituk US, Megalla SA, et al. Antiemetics added to phenylephrine infusion during cesarean delivery
: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol
2013; 121:615–623. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182839fee.
39. Eke AC, Shukr GH, Chaalan TT, Nashif SK, Eleje GU. Intra-abdominal saline irrigation at cesarean section
: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med
2016; 29:1588–1594. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2015.1055723.
40. Jelting Y, Klein C, Harlander T, Eberhart L, Roewer N, Kranke P. Preventing nausea and vomiting in women undergoing regional anesthesia for cesarean section
: challenges and solutions. Local Reg Anesth
2017; 10:83–90. doi: 10.2147/LRA.S111459.
41. Griffiths JD, Gyte GM, Paranjothy S, Brown HC, Broughton HK, Thomas J. Interventions for preventing nausea and vomiting in women undergoing regional anaesthesia for caesarean section. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2012; CD007579doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007579.pub2.
42. De Oliveira GS Jr, Castro-Alves LJ, Ahmad S, Kendall MC, McCarthy RJ. Dexamethasone to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Anesth Analg
2013; 116:58–74. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e31826f0a0a.
43. du Toit L, van Dyk D, Hofmeyr R, Lombard CJ, Dyer RA. Core temperature monitoring in obstetric spinal anesthesia using an ingestible telemetric sensor. Anesth Analg
2018; 126:190–195. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000002326.
44. Perlman J, Kjaer K. Neonatal and maternal temperature regulation during and after delivery. Anesth Analg
2016; 123:168–172. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000001256.
45. Cobb B, Cho Y, Hilton G, Ting V, Carvalho B. Active warming utilizing combined IV fluid and forced-air warming decreases hypothermia and improves maternal comfort during cesarean delivery
: a randomized control trial. Anesth Analg
2016; 122:1490–1497. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000001181.
46. Jun JH, Chung MH, Jun IJ, Kim Y, Kim H, Kim JH, et al. Efficacy of forced-air warming and warmed intravenous fluid for prevention of hypothermia and shivering during caesarean delivery under spinal anaesthesia: a randomised controlled trial. Eur J Anaesthesiol
2019; 36:442–448. doi: 10.1097/EJA.0000000000000990.
47. Duryea EL, Nelson DB, Wyckoff MH, Grant EN, Tao W, Sadana N, et al. The impact of ambient operating room temperature on neonatal and maternal hypothermia and associated morbidities: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol
2016; 214:505.e1–505.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2016.01.190.
48. Terada S, Irikoma S, Yamashita A, Murakoshi T. Incidence of respiratory depression after epidural administration of morphine for cesarean delivery
: findings using a continuous respiratory rate monitoring system. Int J Obstet Anesth
2019; 38:32–36. doi: 10.1016/j.ijoa.2018.10.009.
49. Bauchat JR, Weiniger CF, Sultan P, Habib AS, Ando K, Kowalczyk JJ, et al. Society for obstetric anesthesia and perinatology consensus statement: monitoring recommendations for prevention and detection of respiratory depression associated with administration of neuraxial morphine for cesarean delivery
analgesia. Anesth Analg
2019; 129:458–474. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000004195.
50. Koren G, Cairns J, Chitayat D, Gaedigk A, Leeder SJ. Pharmacogenetics of morphine poisoning in a breastfed neonate of a codeine-prescribed mother. Lancet
2006; 368:704doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69255-6.
51. Altenau B, Crisp CC, Devaiah CG, Lambers DS. Randomized controlled trial of intravenous acetaminophen for postcesarean delivery pain control. Am J Obstet Gynecol
2017; 217:362.e1–362.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.04.030.
52. Kwikiriza A, Kiwanuka JK, Firth PG, Hoeft MA, Modest VE, Ttendo SS. The analgesic effects of intrathecal morphine in comparison with ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block after caesarean section: a randomised controlled trial at a Ugandan regional referral hospital. Anaesthesia
2019; 74:167–173. doi: 10.1111/anae.14467.
53. Blanco R, Ansari T, Girgis E. Quadratus lumborum block for postoperative pain after caesarean section: a randomised controlled trial. Eur J Anaesthesiol
2015; 32:812–818. doi: 10.1097/EJA.0000000000000299.
54. D’Angelo R, Smiley RM, Riley ET, Segal S. Serious complications related to obstetric anesthesia: the serious complication repository project of the Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology. Anesthesiology
2014; 120:1505–1512. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000253.
55. Aiken CE, Aiken AR, Cole JC, Brockelsby JC, Bamber JH. Maternal and fetal outcomes following unplanned conversion to general anesthetic at elective cesarean section
. J Perinatol
2015; 35:695–699. doi: 10.1038/jp.2015.62.
56. Bauer ME, Mhyre JM. Active management of labor epidural analgesia is the key to successful conversion of epidural analgesia to cesarean delivery
anesthesia. Anesth Analg
2016; 123:1074–1076. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000001582.
57. Hillyard SG, Bate TE, Corcoran TB, Paech MJ, O'Sullivan G. Extending epidural analgesia for emergency caesarean section: a meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth
2011; 107:668–678. doi: 10.1093/bja/aer300.
58. Tan HS, Sng BL, Sia ATH. Reducing breakthrough pain during labour epidural analgesia: an update. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol
2019; 32:307–314. doi: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000713.
59. Bisch SP, Wells T, Gramlich L, Faris P, Wang X, Tran DT, et al. Enhanced recovery after surgery
(ERAS) in gynecologic oncology: system-wide implementation and audit leads to improved value and patient outcomes. Gynecol Oncol
2018; 151:117–123. doi: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2018.08.007.
60. Fok D, Aris IM, Ho J, Lim SB, Chua MC, Pang WW, et al. A comparison of practices during the confinement period among Chinese, Malay, and Indian mothers in Singapore. Birth
2016; 43:247–254. doi: 10.1111/birt.12233.