Topics in Pulmonary MedicineARDS as the Presenting Complication of Hyperviscosity Syndrome in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Case ReportKaraman, Irem MS*; Ozen, S. Bade MS*; Ballica, Basak MS*; Uzar, Tugce MS*; Balcik, Ozlem S. MD†; Ozkaya, Sevket MD‡Author Information *Bahcesehir University School of Medicine ‡Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Bahcesehir University Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul †Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Samsun Medicalpark Hospital, Samsun, Turkey Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this manuscript and any accompanying images. Ethical approval is not required at our institution to publish an anonymous case report. Disclosure: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Address correspondence to: Sevket Ozkaya, MD, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Bahcesehir University Faculty of Medicine, Sahrayi Cedit Mahallesi, Batman Sk. No: 66, Kadiköy/İstanbul 34734, Turkey. E-mail: email@example.com. Clinical Pulmonary Medicine: March 2020 - Volume 27 - Issue 2 - p 48-50 doi: 10.1097/CPM.0000000000000350 Buy Metrics Abstract Hyperviscosity syndrome (HVS) is an oncological emergency resulting from elevated cellular or protein fractions of blood causing respiratory or neurological symptoms. While the prevalence is relatively low in leukemias, there are only a few reports of HVS seen in chronic lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Here, we report a case of an unusual presentation of chronic lymphoblastic leukemia in a 73-year-old male patient with extreme hyperleukocytosis and HVS presenting as acute respiratory distress syndrome. He consulted our clinic with complaints of exertional dyspnea followed by an acute respiratory distress syndrome after hospitalization. After evaluation of computed tomography, Chest x-ray, laboratory findings, and ongoing symptoms, the patient was found to present HVS. Even though it is a rare situation, this diagnosis should also be considered when evaluating appropriate patients with hematologic malignancy. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.