Synopsis: In this nationally representative sample of Americans, the following characteristics were significant risk factors associated with a higher prevalence of COPD: living in a rural area with a high level of poverty in the community. Among nonsmokers, living in a community that uses coal for heating was an additional risk factor.
Source: Raju S, Keet CA, Paulin LM, et al. Rural residence and poverty are independent risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the United States. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019;199(8):961–969.