Clinical Pulmonary MedicineFatal Sepsis and Septic Shock Secondary to Aeromonas hydrophila Pneumonia: Report of a Case and Review of the LiteratureChaithra, Kanishan MSc*; Shetty, Veena A. MSc, PhD*; Rai, Rekha R. MD*; Sharma, Raghav R. MD†; Shetty, Avinash K. MD‡Author Information Departments of *Microbiology †General Medicine, K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte (Deemed to be) University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India ‡Department of Pediatrics and Office of Global Health, Wake Forest School of Medicine and Brenner Children’s Hospital, Winston-Salem, NC Disclosure: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Address correspondence to: Veena A. Shetty, MSc, PhD, Department of Microbiology, K.S. Hegde Medical Academy, Nitte (Deemed to be) University, Deralakatte, Mangalore 575018, Karnataka, India. E-mail: [email protected]. Clinical Pulmonary Medicine: July 2019 - Volume 26 - Issue 4 - p 114-117 doi: 10.1097/CPM.0000000000000315 Buy Metrics Abstract Aeromonas hydrophila belongs to the family Aeromonadaceae and is ubiquitous in distribution. It can be widely isolated from environmental sources such as aquatic habitats, fish, and natural soils. Sepsis due to A. hydrophila infection usually occurs in immunocompromised hosts, but severe infection has been reported in apparently healthy individuals. We report a case of a 40-year-old immunocompetent woman who presented with pneumonia and septic shock secondary to A. hydrophila infection. Her clinical course was complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome, metabolic acidosis, and multiorgan failure resulting in mortality. The isolate was susceptible to third-generation and fourth-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam, fluoroquinolones, and trimotheprim/sulfamethoxazole. Review of the literature for previous reports of infection with Aeromonas species infection in previously healthy individuals suggests that pneumonia and bacteremia due to A. hydrophila can be often fulminant and fatal. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy are crucial to reducing morbidity and mortality among patients infected with A. hydrophila. Physicians should be aware of the complications associated with A. hydrophila infection. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.