Topics in Pulmonary MedicineCAL02 Liposomes and Other Antitoxins: A New Generation of Anti-InfectivesAzeredo da Silveira, Samareh PhD; Perez, Antonio MDAuthor Information Combioxin SA, 8 rue de la Rôtisserie, Geneva, Switzerland Disclosure: S.A.d.S. and A.P. work at Combioxin SA, Geneva, Switzerland, which develops innovative antitoxin treatments for severe infections. Address correspondence to: Samareh Azeredo da Silveira, PhD, Combioxin SA, 8 rue de la Rôtisserie, Geneva 1204, Switzerland. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Clinical Pulmonary Medicine: May 2018 - Volume 25 - Issue 3 - p 84-88 doi: 10.1097/CPM.0000000000000255 Buy Metrics Abstract While new generations of existing classes of antibiotics have predominated pipelines, novel nonantibiotic approaches such as antitoxins are gradually taking a more prominent position to address today’s most challenging issues in the field, notably the threatening rise of resistant strains and the unacceptably high rates of treatment failure and mortality despite the best of care. This review presents the clinical stage broad-spectrum antitoxin agent CAL02, which is active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria including ESKAPE pathogens. CAL02 neutralizes bacterial pore-forming toxins, enzymes, and toxin-effector virulent appendages that play a vital and upstream role in pathogenic processes responsible for the progress and severity of infections such as severe pneumonia, bacteremia, and sepsis. The present overview underlines how combination therapies with antimicrobial agents operating in synergy with antibiotics, via unprecedented mechanisms of action, hold promise to dramatically improve standard of care and overturn the morbidity and mortality associated with resistant pathogens. The concerted efforts of academia, industry, clinicians, and regulatory agencies are contributing to a more accurate understanding of the various nontraditional approaches in development. Novel antitoxin treatments help reshape the antibiotic-driven set of mind. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.