Surgical site infection (SSI) occurs in 5% to 7% of patients undergoing operative fixation of acetabular fractures, with reported risk factors including longer operative duration, increased blood loss, pelvic artery embolization, and concurrent abdominal organ injury, among others. Psoas muscle density is a measure of muscle quality and, as a metric for sarcopenia and/or nutrition status, has been associated with poor outcomes such as mortality across multiple surgical specialties. To date, psoas muscle density has not been explored for its associations with SSI in acetabular fracture patients.
Questions/purposes (1) Is decreased psoas muscle density, as measured by Hounsfield units, associated with an increased SSI risk after acetabular fracture fixation? (2) What patient, operative, and hospital variables are associated with an increased SSI risk after acetabular fracture fixation?
Between 2012 to 2017, surgeons performed 684 acetabular ORIF procedures at one level I trauma center. Of those, 8% (56 of 684) did not meet inclusion criteria, leaving 92% (n = 628) for analysis in this study. The median (range) follow-up duration was 12 months (0.5-77). Patient demographics, comorbidities, operative and in-hospital variables, and psoas muscle density measured using preoperative pelvic CT images—acquired for all operative acetabular fracture patients—were analyzed. SSI was defined by positive culture results obtained during irrigation and débridement. Overall, 7% (42 of 628) of patients had an SSI. A multivariable regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors. Sensitivity analysis was performed with minimum follow-up set at 3 months and 6 months.
There was no difference in the mean psoas muscle density between patients with SSI (50.9 ± 10.2 Hounsfield units [HUs]) and those who did not have an SSI within 1 year of open reduction and internal fixation (51.4 ± 8.1 HUs) (mean difference: 0.5 [95% confidence interval -2.34 to 3.32]; p = 0.69). Four variables were independently associated with an increased risk of SSI: increased operative time (1.04 [95% CI 1.00 to 1.07]; p = 0.03), estimated blood loss (1.08 [95% CI 1.02 to 1.14]; p = 0.01), female sex (2.34 [95% CI 1.19 to 4.60]; p = 0.01), and intravenous drug use (3.95 [95% CI 1.51 to 10.33]; p = 0.01). Sensitivity analysis showed no change in results using either 3-month or 6-month minimum follow-up.
Risk factors for SSI after acetabular fixation include female sex, intravenous drug use, prolonged operative times, and increased intraoperative blood loss. Although the density of the psoas muscle may be a surrogate for nutritional markers, it was not associated with SSI in our patients with acetabular fractures. Thus, it is not useful for risk assessment of SSI in the general population with acetabular fracture; however, future studies with larger sample sizes of patients older than 60 years may re-investigate this marker for SSI risk. Contrary to the results of previous studies, pelvic artery embolization, intraoperative blood transfusion, and intensive care unit stay did not increase the risk of SSI; however, we may have been underpowered to detect differences in these secondary endpoints. Future large, multisite studies may be needed to address these conflicting results more definitively.
Level of Evidence
Level III, therapeutic study.