Prolonged wound drainage after TKA is associated with increased risk of infection. To decrease wound drainage, tissue adhesive has been suggested as an adjunct to wound closure after TKA; however, no studies of which we are aware have investigated the effect of tissue adhesive in a modern fast-track TKA setting.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of wound closure using a high-viscosity tissue adhesive in simultaneous bilateral TKA with respect to (1) postoperative wound drainage, measured as number of dressing changes in the first 72 hours postoperatively; and (2) wound healing assessed using the ASEPSIS score.
Thirty patients undergoing simultaneous bilateral TKA were included in the study. The left knee was randomized to receive either standard three-layer closure with staples or the same closure supplemented with tissue adhesive with the opposite treatment used on the contralateral knee. One patient underwent a constrained TKA and underwent revision 2 days after the index procedure and was therefore excluded leaving 29 patients (58 knees) for analysis. Sixty-two percent (n = 18) were female. Mean age was 64 years (range, 42-78 years). Mean body mass index was 28 kg/m2 (range, 21–38 kg/m2). Postoperative wound drainage was evaluated as drainage resulting in a dressing change. The wound dressing was changed if it was soaked to the borders of the absorbable dressing at any point. The nurses changing the dressing were blinded to treatment allocation up to the first dressing change. The number of dressing changes during the first 72 hours postoperatively was recorded. The secondary study endpoint was the ASEPSIS score, which is a clinical score assessing wound healing. ASEPSIS score, measured by a nurse not involved in the treatment, was compared between the groups at 3 weeks followup.
Knees with tissue adhesive underwent fewer dressing changes (median, 0; interquartile range [IQR], 0-1) compared with the contralateral knee (IQR, 1-2; difference of medians, one dressing change; p = 0.001). A total of 59% of knees in the intervention group did not undergo any dressing changes before discharge, whereas 24% of knees in the control group did not undergo any dressing changes before discharge (p = 0.02). The knees in the intervention group and the control group did not differ with respect to ASEPSIS score at 3 weeks.
Tissue adhesive as an adjunct to standard wound closure after primary TKA reduced the number of dressing changes after surgery, but did not change the appearance or healing of the wound at 3 weeks based on the ASEPSIS scores. Whether the small differences observed here in terms of the number of dressing changes performed will justify the additional costs associated with using this product or whether there are other differences associated with the use of tissue adhesive that may prove important such as patient preferences or longer term differences in wound healing or infection should be studied in the future.
Level I, therapeutic study.
K. Gromov, A. Troelsen, S. Raaschou, H. Sandhold, C. Skovgaard Nielsen, H. Husted, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark
H. Kehlet, Section for Surgical Pathophysiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
K. Gromov, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Kettegård Alle 30, 2650 Hvidovre, Denmark, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Each author certifies that neither he or she, nor any member of his or her immediate family, has funding or commercial associations (consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article.
All ICMJE Conflict of Interest Forms for authors and Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® editors and board members are on file with the publication and can be viewed on request.
Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® neither advocates nor endorses the use of any treatment, drug, or device. Readers are encouraged to always seek additional information, including FDA approval status, of any drug or device before clinical use.
Each author certifies that his or her institution approved the human protocol for this investigation and that all investigations were conducted in conformity with ethical principles of research.
This work was performed at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Received June 19, 2018
Accepted December 18, 2018
Online date: February 6, 2019