Variation in Cytokines Induced by Particles From Different Prosthetic MaterialsHaynes, David, R.; Boyle, Sarah, J.; Rogers, Susan, D.; Howie, Donald, W.; Vernon-Roberts, BarrieClinical Orthopaedics and Related Research: July 1998 - Volume 352 - Issue - p 223–230 SECTION II: PDF Only Free Abstract Author InformationAuthors Particles of prosthetic material stimulate macrophages to release cytokines, which may cause bone loss and loosening of the prosthesis. This study investigates the possibility that particles of different prosthetic materials may induce different cytokines and thus have different effects on bone remodeling. The in vitro response of human monocytes to particles of cast and forged cobalt chrome alloy, stainless steel, and titanium aluminum vanadium alloy were compared. There was no difference in the biologic response to cobalt-chrome particles derived from cast or forged material. Cobaltchrome particles were toxic to the cells, but titanium aluminum vanadium particles did not affect cell viability. Stainless steel particles were approximately 10 times more toxic than were cobalt-chrome particles. AH particles induced the release of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1β; stainless steel particles were the most potent stimulators of interleukin 1β; titanium aluminum vanadium particles were the strongest stimulators of interleukin 6 and prostaglandin 2. The study showed that particles derived from prosthetic materials of different metal compositions can elicit significantly different biologic responses. Understanding these different responses may help identify materials better suited for prostheses. Department of Pathology, University of Adelaide, and the Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, Royal Adelaide Hospital and University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.