The role of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase enzymes and the tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase in the periprostetic connective tissue matrix of loose artificial hip joints is reviewed. In the periprosthetic granulomatous interface connective tissues between bone and implants and inner cellular regenerating pseudocapsular tissues, matrix metalloproteinase 1, matrix metalloproteinase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 3, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase enzymes can be shown in the light of immunohistochemistry, enzyme activity analysis, and messenger ribonucleic acid levels. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 1 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase 2 also are found in the corresponding tissues. Analysis of matrix metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase interaction shows imbalance between the enzymes and the endogenous inhibitors in favor of matrix metalloproteinase. This induces pathologic connective tissue remodeling in the interface and pseudocapsule. The data suggest that matrix metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase system participate in the extracellular matrix degradation and tissue remodeling in artificial hip joints, and may contribute to the periprosthetic weakening, implant loosening, and osteolysis around implants. More evidence for their active involvement is sought by intervention studies with type specific matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors.
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan; Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
†Department of Orthopaedics, Saiseikai Yamagata Hospital, Yamagata, Japan
††Department of Medicine, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland;
††ORTON Research Institute, Invalid Foundation and Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Anatomy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.