Since bone marrow has been shown to contain osteoprogenitor cells, an experiment was devised to test its effects when injected percutaneously into osteotomies and 2-cm bony defects produced in rabbit radii. The parameters tested included callus volume, breaking load, tensile strength, and cross-sectional area of callus at the fracture or bony defect site. At two weeks postgrafting callus volume was significantly higher (p lt; 0.01) in the grafted radii than in the contralateral saline controls. By four weeks all four parameters were significantly greater in the bone marrow grafted radii than in the contralateral saline controls. Serial radiographs and histology confirm this advanced fracture healing in the grafted bones. The earlier and more abundant callus, at the bone marrow grafted sites, was felt to provide earlier and greater stability, resulting in decreased early healing time when contrasted with the saline controls. Similarly, the bony defects that were grafted with bone marrow united by a bony bridge, whereas the saline controls did not. Percutaneous bone marrow grafting is a simple semi-invasive technique that may have potential clinical applications.