After reading this article, the participant should be able to:
1. State how energy expenditure is affected by heart failure.
2. Know the impact of protein-calorie refeeding on cardiac function.
3. List dietary micronutrients and metabolic intermediates important to heart function.
The author has disclosed that he holds a joint patent for a nutritional supplement licensed to Royal Numico N.V., The Netherlands.
© 2002 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.