In the August 2019 issue of The Clinical Journal of Pain, in the article by Goldstein et al,1 “The Impact of Psychological Interventions on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Pain Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” the effect size (ES) for the randomized clinical trial by Kip, et al that evaluated the ART intervention was incorrectly coded. Instead of indicating a reduction in pain intensity (ES=−1.05, confidence interval [CI]: −1.64, −0.45), it incorrectly indicated an increase in pain intensity (ES=+1.05, CI: 0.45, 1.64). What follows are the corrections to all sections of the manuscript that were impacted by this error. Readers should refer to the updated plot below:
Corrected abstract: Data from 10 RCTs (N=1401; 1033 men) were included in the meta-analysis, which demonstrated a significant effect for reducing pain intensity (ES=−0.33, CI: −0.59, −0.07; P=0.012).
Corrected forest plot Figure 2B on page 5 of the original article: Meta-analysis (N=10) evaluating the overall pooled effect sizes across the included RCTs demonstrated that psychological treatments had a small, statistically significant effect for reducing pain intensity (ES=−0.33, CI: −0.59, −0.07; P=0.012). Psychological-only interventions (n=7 studies) produced a medium, statistically significant pooled effect for reducing pain intensity (ES=−0.51, CI: −0.84, −0.19; P=0.002).
Corrected subgroup analysis of treatment types: Exposure-based therapies (n=3; 207 participants) produced medium, statistically significant pooled effects for reducing pain intensity (ES=−0.60, CI: −1.19, −0.01, P=0.045).
Corrected heterogeneity assessment for pain intensity (refer to corrected Table 5 below): The heterogeneity assessment of the RCTs included in the meta-analysis (n=10) demonstrated moderate, statistically significant heterogeneity among the studies for pain intensity (I2=69.1%; P=0.001).
Corrected implication: The majority of the psychological-only (eg, single modality) RCT interventions demonstrated efficacy for reliably reducing PTSD symptom severity and pain intensity.
1. Goldstein E, McDonnell C, Atchley R, et al. The impact of psychological interventions on posttraumatic stress disorder and pain symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin J Pain. 2019;35:703–712.