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Increasing Parental Access to Pediatric Pain-related Knowledge

A Systematic Review of Knowledge Translation Research Among Parents

Gagnon, Michelle M. PhD*; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas PhD; McAleer, Lana M. BA (Hons)*; Stopyn, Rhonda J.N. MA

doi: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000770
Review Article

Objectives: Parents can play an integral role in managing their child’s pain, yet many parents remain unaware of evidence-based strategies to support their child during painful experiences. Recent advances in knowledge translation research, which include dissemination and implementation studies, have resulted in programs geared towards parents to offset this knowledge gap. The nature of these programs and the degree to which parents find them useful remains unclear. Our goal was to systematically review programs aimed as disseminating and implementing evidence-based pain-related knowledge to parents.

Materials and Methods: Systematic searches of PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were completed. Articles in which information was disseminated to parents with the goal of assessing dissemination and implementation outcomes were retained. Information was extracted to identify study characteristics, primary outcomes, and quality of evidence.

Results: A total of 24,291 abstracts were screened and 12 articles describing programs were retained. Programs were positively rated by parents in terms of the appropriateness of formats selected, presentation of information, and helpfulness of content. The majority of research has been focused in the area of procedural pain among infants. Although several implementation domains are reported by researchers, certain areas have been overlooked to date, including the cost and sustainability of programs. The majority of reports presented with methodological limitations and bias.

Discussion: Knowledge translation research in pediatric pain is in its infancy. Development of theories and guidelines to increase the utility and quality of evidence are needed.

*Department of Psychology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon

Department of Psychology, University of Regina, Regina, SK, Canada

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Reprints: Michelle M. Gagnon, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Saskatchewan, 9 Campus Drive, Room 164, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5A5 (e-mail:

Received September 26, 2018

Received in revised form September 5, 2019

Accepted September 11, 2019

Online date: September 23, 2019

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