Original ArticlesNeuromodulation in Pediatrics Case SeriesKim, Eugene MD; Gamble, Sean MD; Schwartz, Adina MA, OTR/L; Cucchiaro, Giovanni MDAuthor Information Department of Anesthesiology Critical Care Medicine, Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA E.K. and G.C.: acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of manuscript, and critical revision. S.G. and A.S: analysis and interpretation of data. S.G.: drafting of manuscript. A.S.: critical revision. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Eugene Kim, MD, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, MS#3, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (e-mail: [email protected]). The Clinical Journal of Pain: November 2018 - Volume 34 - Issue 11 - p 983-990 doi: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000632 Buy Metrics Abstract Objectives: Neuromodulation, particularly intrathecal drug delivery systems and spinal cord stimulators (SCSs), can be a valuable tool when treating chronic pain in adults. However, there is a paucity of literature with regard to its use in pediatrics. Materials and Methods: We present a series of 14 children and adolescents with intractable pain who received a SCS or a pump for the intrathecal delivery of medications between 2010 and 2016 at our institution. Results: During the study period, we placed 10 intrathecal pumps and 4 SCSs with an average age of 17 years old. Pain scores significantly improved after the implant (P<0.007) and function improved in 79% of patients. Opioid use was also significantly reduced. Three patients eventually had their device removed due to psychiatric comorbidities. Four patients had complications that were treated without further sequelae. Conclusions: Neuromodulation can offer important options in treating some pediatric chronic pain patients. In-depth knowledge of primary disease and strict patient selection in the context of the patient’s social situation is vital to successful treatment. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.