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Publicly Available Online Educational Videos Regarding Pediatric Needle Pain

A Scoping Review

Farkas, Cameron MS*; Solodiuk, Lydia; Taddio, Anna BScPhm, MSc, PhD; Franck, Linda RN, PhD, FRCPCH§; Berberich, F. Ralph MD; LoChiatto, Joyce RN, MS, CPNP; Solodiuk, Jean C. RN, PhD

The Clinical Journal of Pain: June 2015 - Volume 31 - Issue 6 - p 591–598
doi: 10.1097/AJP.0000000000000197
Special Topics Series

Objectives: The objectives of this scoping review were to: (1) identify publicly available educational videos on needle pain management; and (2) evaluate the content of these videos.

Methods: Reviewers screened publicly available educational videos on pediatric needle pain management available on YouTube and Google using a broad-based search strategy. Videos were categorized using the CRAAP Test: Current, Relevant, from a trustworthy source (Authority), Accurate and evidence-based, and for what Purpose does the source exist.

Results: Twenty-five relevant, educational videos were identified. The intended audience for most videos was parents (n=16, 64%), followed by clinicians (n=6, 24%) and children (n=3, 12%). Common examples of needle pain included immunizations or IV insertion, with interventions appropriate for infants through school-aged children. The most frequently described techniques were parent-guided distraction and behavioral factors such as comfort holds and parent demeanor. Most videos were Current (96%), Relevant (100%), created by a trustworthy source: Authority (76%), and all were Accurate, with Purpose relating to needle pain management. None of the videos addressed the unique needs of children with a preexisting diagnosis of needle phobia.

Discussion: Publicly available educational videos offer clinicians, parents, and children evidence-based techniques to manage pediatric needle pain. Further evaluation is needed to determine whether this form of education meets the needs of target audiences and whether this type of content can lead to improved management of pediatric needle pain.

*Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA

The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada

§FAAN UCSF School of Nursing, San Francisco

Pediatric Suggestions, Berkeley, CA

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Reprints: Cameron Farkas, MS, 154 Coolidge Hill, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (e-mail:

Received July 10, 2014

Received in revised form January 9, 2015

Accepted December 8, 2014

Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.