Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Randomized-controlled Trial Comparing Yoga and Home-based Exercise for Chronic Neck Pain

Cramer, Holger MSc*; Lauche, Romy PhD*; Hohmann, Claudia MD*; Lüdtke, Rainer MSc; Haller, Heidemarie MSc*; Michalsen, Andreas MD‡,§; Langhorst, Jost MD*; Dobos, Gustav MD*

doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e318251026c
Original Articles

Objectives: Chronic neck pain is a significant public health problem with only very few evidence-based treatment options. There is growing evidence for the effectiveness of yoga for relieving musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Iyengar yoga compared with exercise on chronic nonspecific neck pain.

Methods: Patients were randomly assigned to either yoga or exercise. The yoga group attended a 9-week yoga course and the exercise group received a self-care manual on home-based exercises for neck pain relief. The main outcome measure was the present neck pain intensity (100 mm visual analog scale). Secondary outcome measures included functional disability (Neck Disability Index), pain at motion (visual analog scale), health-related quality of life (Short Form-36 questionnaire), cervical range of motion, proprioceptive acuity, and pressure pain threshold.

Results: Fifty-one patients (mean age 47.8 y ; 82.4% female) were randomized to yoga (n=25) and exercise (n=26) intervention. After the study period, patients in the yoga group reported significantly less neck pain intensity compared with the exercise group [mean difference: −13.9 mm (95% CI, −26.4 to −1.4), P=0.03]. The yoga group reported less disability and better mental quality of life. Range of motion and proprioceptive acuity were improved and the pressure pain threshold was elevated in the yoga group.

Discussion: Yoga was more effective in relieving chronic nonspecific neck pain than a home-based exercise program. Yoga reduced neck pain intensity and disability and improved health-related quality of life. Moreover, yoga seems to influence the functional status of neck muscles, as indicated by improvement of physiological measures of neck pain.

*Chair of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, University of Duisburg-Essen

Karl and Veronica Carstens Foundation, Essen

Immanuel Hospital Berlin, Department of Internal and Complementary Medicine

§Institute of Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité University Medical Centre, Berlin, Germany

The authors declare no conflict of interest. This study was supported by a research Grant from the Karl and Veronica Carstens Foundation, Essen, Germany. The funding source had a role in the design and biometrical analysis of the study.

Reprints: Holger Cramer, MSc, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Klinik für Naturheilkunde und Integrative Medizin, Knappschafts-Krankenhaus, Am Deimelsberg 34a, 45276 Essen, Germany (e-mail:

Received October 5, 2011

Accepted February 18, 2012

© 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.