Review ArticlesLoin Pain Hematuria Syndrome—Visceral or Neuropathic Pain Syndrome?Smith, Howard S. MD*; Bajwa, Zahid H. MD†,‡ Author Information *Department of Anesthesiology, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY †Anesthesia and Neurology, Harvard Medical School ‡Education and Clinical Pain Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Howard S. Smith, MD, Department of Anesthesiology, Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Avenue; MC-131, Albany, NY 12208 (e-mail: [email protected]). Received December 1, 2010 Accepted October 14, 2011 The Clinical Journal oF Pain 28(7):p 646-651, September 2012. | DOI: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e31823d47f3 Buy Metrics Abstract Loin pain hematuria syndrome (LPHS) is a rare pain syndrome, which is somewhat poorly characterized and challenging to treat. The condition of LPHS is still controversial and there is no consensus of validated diagnostic criteria or optimal treatment strategies. The epidemiology of LPHS is unknown and the mechanisms/etiologies contributing to LPHS remain uncertain. There exists some debate whether LPHS represents neuropathic pain or visceral pain. Curiously, for such a controversial pain syndrome there is substantially more written in the literature regarding surgical-type treatments than conservative treatments. A brief review of LPHS potential pathophysiology and potential treatment approaches is presented. Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.