Original ArticlesA Randomized Controlled Trial of Vapocoolant for Pediatric Immunization Distress ReliefCohen, Lindsey L. PhD* †; MacLaren, Jill E. PhD‡; DeMore, Melissa PhD§; Fortson, Beverly PhD∥; Friedman, Abby PhD¶; Lim, Crystal S. MA*; Gangaram, Balram MD♯ Author Information *Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA †Bath Center for Pain Research, University of Bath ‡Department of Anesthesiology, University of California, Irvine §Pediatric Psychology Consultation Program Kennedy Krieger Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD ∥Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina Aiken, Aiken, SC ¶Department of Psychology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV ♯John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Manoa, HI Reprints: Lindsey L. Cohen, PhD, Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302-5010 (e-mail: [email protected]). Received for publication September 22, 2008; revised November 20, 2008; accepted November 24, 2008 The Clinical Journal of Pain: July 2009 - Volume 25 - Issue 6 - p 490-494 doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e3181a00414 Buy Metrics Abstract Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vapocoolant for preschoolers' immunization injection pain relief. Methods Fifty-seven 4 to 6-year-old children were randomized into vapocoolant alone or typical care conditions. Pain was measured at the baseline and at injection via self-report, caregiver report, nurse report, and by an observational scale. Results Self-report of pain suggested that children in the vapocoolant alone condition demonstrated stronger increases in pain from baseline to injection than children in the typical care condition. All other measures showed significant increases in pain from baseline to injection, but no other measures indicated treatment effects. Discussion This study revealed that vapocoolant is not an effective pain management intervention for children's intramuscular injections. © 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.