ArticlesGonadal Hormones and Sex Differences in Pain ReactivityAloisi, Anna Maria MD, PhDAuthor Information Department of Physiology, University of Siena, Siena, Italy Received June 17, 2002; accepted June 17, 2002. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Prof. Anna Maria Aloisi, Dipartimento di Fisiologia, Nuovi Istituti Biologici, Via Aldo Moro, 53100, Siena, Italy. E-mail: email@example.com The Clinical Journal of Pain: May-June 2003 - Volume 19 - Issue 3 - p 168-174 Buy Abstract Background Sex differences in the response threshold to painful stimuli and the higher number of chronic pain syndromes in women than in men have prompted a series of studies on lower animals and humans aimed at clarifying the role of gonadal hormones in pain. Objective This article examines the morphologic and functional aspects of gonadal hormone systems and the relations between gonadal hormones and pain circuits, to identify areas deserving of increased attention in elucidating the endocrine mechanisms that contribute to abnormal pain states. © 2003 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.