Opioid Use, Misuse and Abuse: The Rise and Fall of a National Opioid EpidemicPhysiological Response to OpioidsTYAN, PAUL MD; CAREY, ERIN T. MD, MSCRAuthor Information Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina The authors declare that they have nothing to disclose. Correspondence: Erin T. Carey, MD, MSCR, 101 Manning Drive, Chapel Hill, NC. E-mail: email@example.com Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology: March 2019 - Volume 62 - Issue 1 - p 11-21 doi: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000421 Buy Metrics Abstract The clinical setting in which women’s health physicians practice, whether as generalist, obstetricians and gynecologists, or subspecialists, dictates our frequent clinical interaction with “pain.” Opioid-containing medications are frequently prescribed within our specialty as a means of immediate pain relief. Opioid-containing medication causes a deep physiological alteration of several systems resulting in potential harm to acute and chronic opioid users. This article includes a thorough system-based review of opioid-containing medications on physiological systems. Women’s health providers should have an in-depth understanding of such reverberations on patients’ wellbeing to maintain the safest level of care. A solid grasp of physiological repercussions of opioid use would encourage physicians to seek alternative treatment options. Such practice is essential in curbing the opioid epidemic our patients are facing. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.