Substance Abuse in PregnancyAlcohol Use in PregnancyDEJONG, KATHERINE MD*; OLYAEI, AMY†; LO, JAMIE O. MD* Author Information *Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland †Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon The authors declare that they have nothing to disclose. Correspondence: Jamie O. Lo, MD, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, Mail Code L458, Portland, OR. E-mail: [email protected] Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology: March 2019 - Volume 62 - Issue 1 - p 142-155 doi: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000414 Buy Metrics Abstract Alcohol exposure during pregnancy results in impaired growth, stillbirth, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Fetal alcohol deficits are lifelong issues with no current treatment or established diagnostic or therapeutic tools to prevent and/or ameliorate some of these adverse outcomes. Despite the recommendation to abstain, almost half of the women consume alcohol in pregnancy in the United States. This review focuses on the trends in prenatal alcohol exposure, implications for maternal and fetal health, and evidence suggesting that preconception and the prenatal period provide a window of opportunity to intervene, mitigate, and ideally curtail the lifetime effects of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.