Perinatal Viral Infections: Considering Achievements, Opportunities, and Paradoxes in ManagementHIV Infection: Antepartum Treatment and ManagementBERNSTEIN, HELENE B. MD, PhD*,†; WEGMAN, ADAM D. BS†Author Information Departments of *Obstetrics and Gynecology †Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York The authors declare that they have nothing to disclose. Correspondence: Helene B. Bernstein, MD, PhD, Department of Microbiology and Immunology SUNY Upstate Medical University, 2204 Weiskotten Hall, Syracuse, NY. E-mail: [email protected] Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology: March 2018 - Volume 61 - Issue 1 - p 122-136 doi: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000330 Buy Metrics Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus which became pandemic in the early 1980s. Since its initial characterization, advancements in diagnosis and management have transformed HIV infection from a terminal diagnosis to a chronic, manageable condition. Effective antiretroviral therapy, acting at multiple steps in the viral lifecycle, durably suppresses viral replication, preserves maternal health and prevents mother to child HIV transmission. Here, we review the salient clinical and ethical considerations of managing HIV infection during pregnancy and delivery. Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.