Recurrent pregnancy loss, depending on the definition, affects 1% to 3% of women aiming to have a child. Little is known about the direct causes of recurrent pregnancy loss, and the condition is considered to have a multifactorial and complex pathogenesis. The aim of this review was to summarize the evaluation and the management of the condition with specific emphasis on immunologic biomarkers identified as risk factors as well as current immunologic treatment options. The review also highlights and discusses areas in need of further research.
*Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Clinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
†Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aalborg University Hospital and Clinical Institute, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark
The authors declare that they have no disclosures.
Correspondence: Ole B. Christiansen, MD, DMSc, Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Clinic, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. E-mail: email@example.com