This chapter provides a summary of the literature including results from large trials, meta-analyses, and recent major recommendations. Two well-accepted and recent recommendations include those from the Agency for Health Research and Quality on calcium and vitamin D supplementation and from the Institute of Medicine’s dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D. This review suggests that there is strong evidence for synergistic roles of calcium and vitamin D in maintaining bone health in postmenopausal women, but the correlation between vitamin D alone and bone health is overall inconclusive.
Departments of *ObGyn;
§Internal Medicine, The Reading Hospital and Medical Center, Reading;
Departments of †ObGyn;
∥Internal Medicine, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania;
‡Maine Medical Center Research Institute, Portland, Maine
The funding sources for this research and manuscript preparation were the research budgets of the Reading Hospital.
The authors declare that they have nothing to disclose.
Correspondence: Xuezhi Jiang, MD, FACOG, Department of ObGyn, The Reading Hospital, Reading, PA. E-mail: email@example.com