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Bone Density Measurement and Assessment of Fracture Risk


Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology: December 2013 - Volume 56 - Issue 4 - p 667–676
doi: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e3182a8ad7e
Osteoporosis: Diagnosis and Management

The most useful methods for estimating fracture risk are bone mineral density (BMD) testing by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and consideration of clinical risk factors (CRFs) for fracture. The combination of BMD and CRFs predicts fractures better than BMD or CRFs alone. FRAX is a computer-based fracture risk algorithm developed by the World Health Organization to estimate fracture probability using validated CRFs and femoral neck BMD, when available. BMD and FRAX are included in clinical practice guidelines to identify patients at high fracture risk who are most likely to benefit from pharmacologic therapy to reduce fracture risk.

New Mexico Clinical Research & Osteoporosis Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico

The author’s institution has received grant/research support from Amgen, Merck, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Warner Chilcott, GSK, and Genentech.

E.M.L. has served as a consultant and/or speaker for Amgen, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Merck, Warner Chilcott, GSK, and Genentech.

Correspondence: E. Michael Lewiecki, MD, New Mexico Clinical Research & Osteoporosis Center, Albuquerque, NM. E-mail:

© 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.