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What Happened to WHI: Menopausal Hormonal Therapy in 2012


Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology: September 2012 - Volume 55 - Issue 3 - p 706–712
doi: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e31825cab41
Office Gynecology

Menopause is characterized by amenorrhea for 1 year due to the cessation of ovarian function. The hormonal treatment of menopause has significantly altered since the publication of initial results from the Women’s Health Initiative continuous, combined, conjugated equine estrogen with medroxyprogesterone acetate study arm in 2002. Current studies suggest that treatment should be individualized and that the lowest dose of estrogen providing relief should be used for the shortest period of time in menopausal women who experience vasomotor symptoms or urogenital atrophy. Future studies into different delivery mechanisms such as transdermal applications and different agents, such as tibolone and raloxifene, will help refine the treatment of menopause.

*Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Science Center, Sioux Falls

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine of the University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota

The authors declare that they have nothing to disclose.

Correspondence: Keith A. Hansen, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sanford School of Medicine of The University of South Dakota, Health Science Center, Sioux Falls, SD. E-mail:

© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.