The Levonorgestrel-releasing Intrauterine System: An Updated Review of the Contraceptive and Noncontraceptive UsesCHRISMAN, CAMARYN MD, MPH; RIBEIRO, PRICILLA BA; DALTON, VANESSA K. MD, MPHClinical Obstetrics and Gynecology: December 2007 - Volume 50 - Issue 4 - p 886-897 doi: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e318159c0d9 Hormonal Contraception Abstract Author Information The levonorgestrel containing intrauterine system is an effective and safe form of long-term yet reversible birth control. Intrauterine contraception use in the United States fell dramatically after early studies reported an association between intrauterine contraception use and later tubal infertility. Subsequent evaluation suggests that these early studies were biased. Users often experience menstrual disturbances. Informing patients of these common side effects is important to improve compliance. In addition to its contraceptive effect, the levonorgestrel intrauterine system offers potential therapeutic benefits in other clinical contexts, including menorrhagia, symptomatic fibroids, endometriosis, and endometrial suppression. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan Correspondence: Vanessa K. Dalton, MD, MPH, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, 1500 E. Medical Center Dr, L4000 Women's Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI 48109. E-mail: email@example.com © 2007 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.