A device that provides continuous, long-term, accurate seizure detection information to providers and patients could fundamentally alter epilepsy care. Subgaleal (SG) EEG is a promising modality that offers a minimally invasive, safe, and accurate means of long-term seizure monitoring.
Subgaleal EEG electrodes were placed, at or near the cranial vertex, simultaneously with intracranial EEG electrodes in 21 epilepsy patients undergoing intracranial EEG studies for up to 13 days. A total of 219, 10-minute single-channel SGEEG samples, including 138 interictal awake or sleep segments and 81 seizures (36 temporal lobe, 32 extra-temporal, and 13 simultaneous temporal/extra-emporal onsets) were reviewed by 3 expert readers blinded to the intracranial EEG results, then analyzed for accuracy and interrater reliability.
Using a single-channel of SGEEG, reviewers accurately identified 98% of temporal and extratemporal onset, intracranial, EEG-verified seizures with a sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 99%. All focal to bilateral tonic-–clonic seizures were correctly identified.
Single-channel SGEEG, placed at or near the vertex, reliably identifies focal and secondarily generalized seizures. These findings demonstrate that the SG space at the cranial vertex may be an appropriate site for long-term ambulatory seizure monitoring.