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Montages for Noninvasive EEG Recording

Kutluay, Ekrem*; Kalamangalam, Giridhar P.

Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: September 2019 - Volume 36 - Issue 5 - p 330–336
doi: 10.1097/WNP.0000000000000546
Invited Review

Summary: Identifying the localization, distribution, and polarity of waveforms are the prime goals of clinical scalp EEG analysis. Appropriate choices of bipolar and referential montages are keys to emphasizing the diagnostic features of interest, and demand some understanding of the spatiotemporal physical behavior of the underlying neuronal generators. Several examples drawn from canonical epilepsy syndromes are used to illustrate this general message.

*Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.; and

Department of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Giridhar P. Kalamangalam, MD, DPhil, Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, PO Box 100236, Gainseville, FL 32608, U.S.A.; e-mail:

G. P. Kalamangalam acknowledges a NIH career development award (5 K23 NS079900).

The remaining author has no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.

© 2019 by the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society