Periodic discharges (PDs) are EEG patterns that may have important clinical and prognostic implications. There are different subtypes of PDs that are delineated by their location, and each type may have different meaning regarding prognosis and clinical associations. Bilateral independent PDs are a subtype that have not been analyzed recently and remain poorly understood. In this article, we systematically review the literature to better describe bilateral independent PDs regarding underlying neuropathology, neuroimaging, and neuroexamination correlates, seizure incidence, EEG characteristics, their comparison with other PD subtypes, and prognostic meaning.
*Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.; and
†Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A.
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Brin Freund, MD, Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 N, Wolfe St, Zayed Tower, Room 6005, Baltimore, MD 21287, U.S.A.; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.