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Infantile Epileptic Encephalopathy with Hypsarrhythmia (Infantile Spasms/West Syndrome)

Hrachovy, Richard A.*‡§; Frost, James D. Jr.*†§

Review Articles

Infantile spasms is a unique disorder peculiar to infancy and early childhood. In this article, the clinical manifestations and electroencephalographic features of the disorder are described. The possible pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying infantile spasms and the relation of this disorder to other childhood encephalopathies are discussed. Finally, the treatment of patients with infantile spasms and their long-term outcome are briefly reviewed.

*Peter Kellaway Section of Neurophysiology, Department of Neurology and Division of Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine; Veterans Affairs Medical Center; and §The Methodist Hospital and Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, Texas, U.S.A.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. Richard A. Hrachovy, Baylor College of Medicine, Peter Kellaway Section of Neurophysiology, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 U.S.A.; e-mail:

Copyright © 2003 American Clinical Neurophysiology Society