This review paper discusses the use of electrical stimulation to restore function after upper motor neurone type of paralysis. It describes the basic physiology of electrical stimulation, the electrophysiology and biomaterials associated with using metal electrodes to deliver charge to living tissue, and also the adverse effects of stimulation. The central concepts of electrode applications, stimulus parameters, muscle fatigue, and stimulation control are covered. Next, a survey of clinical applications is made with focus on upper and lower limb applications. A concluding section mentions the current status of commercial products available for stimulation.
Research Associate, Department of Orthopedics, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio; *Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Orthopedics, Case Western Reserve University, Director, FES Center, and Metro Health Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio
Address correspondence and reprint requests to Dr. N. Bhadra, Research Associate, MetroHealth Medical Center, Hamman 601, 2500 MetroHealth Drive, Cleveland, OH 44109, U.S.A.