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Methylphenidate-Induced Psychosis in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Report of 3 New Cases and Review of the Literature

Kraemer, Markus MD*†; Uekermann, Jennifer PhD*; Wiltfang, Jens MD*; Kis, Bernhard MD*

doi: 10.1097/WNF.0b013e3181e29174
Review Articles

Objective: We present 3 new cases of psychotic symptoms in patients with adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder while regularly treated with a stimulant therapy with methylphenidate.

Methods: Existing literature about this theme is reviewed, and potential mechanisms are discussed.

Results and Conclusions: Medication with methylphenidate should be avoided in patients with vulnerability to schizophrenia and in drug addiction, but reported cases without these risk factors demonstrate that a careful and regular psychiatric monitoring is essential in all patients treated with methylphenidate.

*Outpatient Clinic for Adult ADHD, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Duisburg-Essen, LVR Clinic Essen; and †Department of Neurology, Alfried Krupp Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Markus Kraemer, MD, Department of Neurology, Alfried Krupp Hospital, Alfried-Krupp-Strasse 21, 45117 Essen, Germany; E-mail:

There was no funding.

© 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.