Carbamazepine (CBZ), oxcarbazepine (OXC), and eslicarbazepine (ESL) acetate belong to the dibenzazepine family. In this context, the aim of this literature review is to evaluate the clinical epidemiological profile, pathological mechanisms, and management of CBZ-, OXC-, and ESL-associated movement disorders (MDs).
Relevant reports in 6 databases were identified and assessed by 2 reviewers without language restriction. Reports where the individuals only developed tremor or ataxia after CBZ/OXC/ESL use were not included. A total of 73 reports containing 191 individuals who developed MD associated with CBZ/OXC/ESL were identified. Were found, respectively, the following: 33 patients with myoclonus, 23 with dystonia, 14 with tics, 13 with dyskinesia, 8 with parkinsonism, and 5 with akathisia. In the group not clearly defined, there were 44 with myoclonus, 29 with dyskinesia, 20 with dystonia, 1 with incoordination, and 1 with akathisia. The mean age was 28.53 years. The most frequent sex was male in 52.77% (38/72), and the drug indication was epilepsy in 74.19% (69/93). The mean (SD) CBZ dose when the MD occurred was 692.68 (363.58) mg. The mean time until MD onset was 33.59 days, and the mean recovery period was 8.7 days. The most common form of MD management was drug withdrawal.
The number of cases associated with CBZ is higher than those with OXC + ESL. We believe that the study of CBZ contributes not only to the improvement of this drug but also to the knowledge about the drug-induced MD of OXC and ESL. In the literature, the description of the MD onset and recovery has been poorly reported.