Case ReportsCatatonia in Adolescence: First Onset Psychosis or Anti-NMDAr Encephalitis?Averna, Roberto MD, PhD*; Battaglia, Claudia MD†; Labonia, Milena PsyD*; Riccioni, Assia MD‡; Vicari, Stefano MD, PhD*Author Information *Department of Neurosciences and Neurorehabilitation, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome; †SPDC, DSMDP Asl Roma 5, Tivoli; and ‡Department of Neuroscience, Pediatric Neurology Unit, Tor Vergata University of Rome, Rome, Italy. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Roberto Averna, MD, PhD, Department of Neurosciences and Neurorehabilitation, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, P.zza Sant'Onofrio, 4, 00165 Rome, Italy; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. Clinical Neuropharmacology: 7/8 2019 - Volume 42 - Issue 4 - p 136-138 doi: 10.1097/WNF.0000000000000348 Buy Metrics Abstract Catatonia is a rare condition that can occur in developmental disorders, but it is more frequently seen in schizophrenia. Recently, a high prevalence of cerebrospinal fluid abnormalities including the detection of antineuronal autoantibodies has been observed in psychotic patients. Among these autoimmune encephalopathies associated with a psychiatric condition, a great deal of attention has been paid to anti–N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) encephalitis, which may present, among other things, symptoms such as catatonia, which therefore imposes a differential diagnosis with respect to the early psychosis. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical characteristics of 4 cases with catatonic symptoms to understand the differences between the psychotic symptoms due to a type of encephalitis anti-NMDAr and the psychotic symptoms without anti-NMDAr. Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.