Review ArticleRituximab and Multiple SclerosisKitsos, Dimitrios K. MD, PhD*; Tsiodras, Sotirios MD, PhD†; Stamboulis, Eleftherios MD, PhD*; Voumvourakis, Konstantine I. MD, PhD*Author Information *Second Department of Neurology, and †Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece. Conflicts of Interest and Source of Funding: The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. Address correspondence and reprint requests to Konstantine I. Voumvourakis, MD, PhD, Department of Multiple Sclerosis, University of Athens Medical School, Attikon University Hospital, 1 Rimini St, Chaidari, Athens, Greece, PS 12462; E-mail: email@example.com Clinical Neuropharmacology: March/April 2012 - Volume 35 - Issue 2 - p 90-96 doi: 10.1097/WNF.0b013e31824523c9 Buy Metrics Abstract B lymphocytes seem to have a fundamental role in multiple sclerosis, acting as sensors, coordinators, and regulators of the immune response. Furthermore, they are important in activating T cells and they can mediate tissue injury through diverse mechanisms. Such findings have important therapeutic implications in autoimmune central nervous system diseases in a fashion similar to other autoimmune processes. The best known monoclonal antibody targeting B cells that has been used as a novel therapy for various autoimmune conditions, as well as multiple sclerosis, is rituximab. This review summarizes the available data on the role of B cell in multiple sclerosis and further reports on current knowledge on the B-cell–depleting monoclonal antibody rituximab, its mechanism of action, and its efficacy on multiple sclerosis. Data presented were categorized in 3 groups based on the nature of data presented (radiological, clinical, and immunological data). Both case-control studies and case reports were included, while table classification was in chronological order. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.