Review ArticleNeuropsychiatric Sequelae of Neuroleptic Malignant SyndromeAdityanjee, *; Sajatovic, Martha MD†; Munshi, Kaizad R MD, DPH, MPH*Author Information From the *VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota; and the †University Hospitals of Cleveland, Ohio. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and not those of the Department of Veterans Affairs. Reprints: Adityanjee, MD, Associate Professor of Psychiatry, University of Minnesota Medical School Director, Schizophrenia & Psychotic Disorders Program, Minneapolis VA Medical Center, (116-A) One Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417 USA (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Clinical Neuropharmacology: July-August 2005 - Volume 28 - Issue 4 - p 197-204 doi: 10.1097/01.wnf.0000172079.80795.5f Buy Metrics Abstract The authors review the literature on persistent sequelae of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS). They highlight the clinical presentations, assessment, and management of persistent sequelae and stress the need to take preventive steps to minimize their occurrence. The authors conducted a Medline and PubMed search for papers on residual sequelae of NMS. They cross-referenced the available papers and “operationalized” the diagnostic criteria for persistent neuropsychiatric sequelae. A total of 31 cases of neuropsychiatric sequelae of NMS were identified. With reduction in mortality from NMS, persistent sequelae of NMS have assumed clinical importance. Long-term sequelae persist for weeks to months after amelioration of an acute episode. Individuals with a preexisting CNS insult are more predisposed to develop persistent sequelae. A high index of awareness for persistent sequelae is warranted because antipsychotics are widely used for psychiatric disorders besides schizophrenia. Awareness of such outcomes and the use of evidence-based strategies to minimize risk factors will help clinicians in reducing the persistent sequelae of NMS. © 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.