ORIGINAL ARTICLESRubinstein–Taybi syndrome type 2: report of nine new cases that extend the phenotypic and genotypic spectrumHamilton, Mark J.a,f; Newbury-Ecob, Ruthb; Holder-Espinasse, Murielc; Yau, Shud; Lillis, Suzanned; Hurst, Jane A.e; Clement, Emmae; Reardon, Williami; Joss, Shelaghf; Hobson, Emmag; Blyth, Moirag; Al-Shehhi, Maryami; Lynch, Sally A.j; Suri, Mohnisha; DDD Study Author Information aDepartment of Clinical Genetics, Nottingham City Hospital, Nottingham bDepartment of Clinical Genetics, University Hospitals Bristol, Bristol cClinical Genetics Service dViapath Analytics LLP, Guy’s and St Thomas’ Hospital eClinical Genetics Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London fWest of Scotland Clinical Genetics Service, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow gYorkshire Regional Genetics Service, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds hWellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK iDepartment of Clinical Genetics, Our Lady’s Hospital for Children jACoRD, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland Correspondence to Mark J. Hamilton, MBChB, Research Fellow in Clinical Genetics, West of Scotland Genetics Service, Level 2A, Laboratory Medicine Building, Queen Elizabeth University Hospital, Glasgow G51 4TF, UK Tel: +44 141 354 9201; fax: +44 141 232 7986; e-mail: [email protected] Clinical Dysmorphology: October 2016 - Volume 25 - Issue 4 - p 135-145 doi: 10.1097/MCD.0000000000000143 Buy Metrics Abstract Rubinstein–Taybi syndrome (RTS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by growth deficiency, broad thumbs and great toes, intellectual disability and characteristic craniofacial appearance. Mutations in CREBBP account for around 55% of cases, with a further 8% attributed to the paralogous gene EP300. Comparatively few reports exist describing the phenotype of Rubinstein–Taybi because of EP300 mutations. Clinical and genetic data were obtained from nine patients from the UK and Ireland with pathogenic EP300 mutations, identified either by targeted testing or by exome sequencing. All patients had mild or moderate intellectual impairment. Behavioural or social difficulties were noted in eight patients, including three with autistic spectrum disorders. Typical dysmorphic features of Rubinstein–Taybi were only variably present. Additional observations include maternal pre-eclampsia (2/9), syndactyly (3/9), feeding or swallowing issues (3/9), delayed bone age (2/9) and scoliosis (2/9). Six patients had truncating mutations in EP300, with pathogenic missense mutations identified in the remaining three. The findings support previous observations that microcephaly, maternal pre-eclampsia, mild growth restriction and a mild to moderate intellectual disability are key pointers to the diagnosis of EP300-related RTS. Variability in the presence of typical facial features of Rubinstein–Taybi further highlights clinical heterogeneity, particularly among patients identified by exome sequencing. Features that overlap with Floating–Harbor syndrome, including craniofacial dysmorphism and delayed osseous maturation, were observed in three patients. Previous reports have only described mutations predicted to cause haploinsufficiency of EP300, whereas this cohort includes the first described pathogenic missense mutations in EP300. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.