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Dry Eye Assessment in Patients With Vitamin D Deficiency

Demirci, Goktug, M.D.; Karaman Erdur, Sevil, M.D.; Ozsutcu, Mustafa, M.D.; Eliacik, Mustafa, M.D.; Olmuscelik, Oktay, M.D.; Aydin, Rukiye, M.D.; Kocabora, Mehmet Selim, M.D.

doi: 10.1097/ICL.0000000000000325

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate tear film function in patients with vitamin D deficiency.

Methods: In a single center, 60 eyes of 30 patients with vitamin D deficiency (group 1), and 60 eyes of 30 healthy individuals (group 2) were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear break-up time (TBUT), scoring of ocular surface fluorescein staining using a modified Oxford scale, and tear osmolarity.

Results: Tear osmolarity values, OSDI, and Oxford scale scores were significantly higher in group 1 (309±9 mOsm/L, 35.78±21.44 and 1.3±0.9, respectively) compared with group 2 (295±10 mOsm/L, 18.69±17.21 and 0.4±0.8, respectively) (P<0.001 for all). Schirmer I test and TBUT results in group 1 (8.5±3.7 mm and 8.7±0.6 sec, respectively) were significantly lower compared with group 2 (16.6±2.4 and 18.1±0.5, respectively) (P<0.001 for all).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that vitamin D deficiency is associated with tear hyperosmolarity and tear film dysfunction. Patients with vitamin D deficiency may be prone to dry eye.

Departments of Ophthalmology (G.D., S.K.E., M.O., M.E., R.A., M.S.K.), and Internal Medicine (O.O.), Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Address correspondence to Sevil Karaman Erdur, M.D., Istanbul Medipol University Hospital, Bagcilar, Istanbul 34214, Turkey; e-mail:

The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Accepted August 01, 2016

© 2018 Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Inc.