Review: PDF OnlyCurrent and Future Pharmacological Therapies for the Management of Dry EyeGupta, Preeya K. M.D.; Asbell, Penny M.D.; Sheppard, John M.D.Author Information Department of Ophthalmology (P.K.G.), Duke University Eye Center, Durham, NC; Hamilton Eye Institute (P.A.), University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN; and Virginia Eye Consultants (J.S.), Norfolk, VA. Address correspondence to Preeya K. Gupta, M.D., Department of Ophthalmology, Duke University Eye Center, 4709 Creekstone Drive, Suite 100, Durham, NC 27703; e-mail: email@example.com P. K. Gupta is consultant to Allergan, Alcon, Aurea, Novartis, Bausch + Lomb, Johnson & Johnson Vision, Ocular Science, ReGenTree, Shire, Sight Sciences, TearLab, Kala Pharmaceuticals, and Zeiss. P. Asbell receives grants from Bausch + Lomb, the National Eye Institute, the Office of Dietary Supplements (NIH), Novartis, MC2 Therapeutics, Rtech, and Miotech; speaker fees from Medscape, Oculus, Santen, ScientiaCME, and Vindico; advisory board/consultancy fees from Allergan, Bausch + Lomb, MC2 Therapeutics, Novartis, Rtech, Shire, and Miotech; and nonfinancial support from Bausch + Lomb, CLAO, Santen, and Shire. J. Sheppard reports personal fees from Allergan, Allysta, Alcon/Novartis, Avedro, Bausch + Lomb, Clementia Pharma, Clearside, EyeGate, EyePoint, Johnson & Johnson Vision, Ocular Therapeutix, Science Based Health, Senju, Shire, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc., Santen, TearLab, TearScience, Topcon, Topivert, and ViewPoint; and other fees from Alcon/Novartis, Kala Pharmaceuticals, Lacrisciences, Medscape, Novaliq, Noveome, Ocular Therapeutix, Shire, Tear Solutions, and TearLab. Writing and editorial support for manuscript preparation were provided by Ginny Feltzin, PhD (AlphaBioCom, LLC, King of Prussia, PA), and funded by Sun Pharmaceutical Industries, Inc. (Princeton, NJ). All authors met the International Council of Medical Journal Editors criteria and received neither honoraria nor payment for authorship. Accepted August 18, 2019 This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. Eye & Contact Lens: Science & Clinical Practice: October 10, 2019 - Volume Publish Ahead of Print - Issue - doi: 10.1097/ICL.0000000000000666 Open PAP Metrics Abstract Dry eye disease (DED) is among the most common reasons for visiting eye care practitioners and represents a substantial health and cost burden. Disease prevalence ranges from 5% to 33% and is increasing in the younger population. The core mechanism of DED involves a vicious cycle where hyperosmolarity leads to an inflammatory cascade resulting in ocular surface damage. No cure is available for DED, and patients require ongoing disease management. Over-the-counter medications can provide temporary symptom relief but do not tackle the inflammatory pathophysiology of DED. A number of medications with anti-inflammatory activity are available, but there is a need for development of pharmacotherapies with novel delivery methods and targets to widen the variety of treatment options. This review discusses current anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapies approved in the United States and Europe for DED and highlights novel drugs that have been recently approved or are in development. © 2020 Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Inc.