The definitive identification of ocular pathogens optimizes effective treatment. Although the types of ocular pathogens are known; there is less definitive information on the prevalence of causative infections including viruses, fungi, and protozoa, which is the focus of this retrospective laboratory review.
Data used for laboratory certification were reviewed for the detection of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa, from patients with infectious keratitis, endophthalmitis, and conjunctivitis. The main outcome parameter was laboratory-positive ocular infection.
The distribution of infectious agents for keratitis (n=1,387) (2004–2018) was bacteria 72.1% (Staphylococcus aureus 20.3%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 18%, Streptococcus spp. 8.5%, other gram-positives 12.4%, and other gram-negatives 12.9%), Herpes simplex virus 16%, fungi 6.7%, and Acanthamoeba 5.2%. For endophthalmitis, (n=770) (1993–2018), the bacterial distribution was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus 54%, Streptococcus spp. 21%, S. aureus 10%, other gram-positives 8%, and gram-negatives 7%. The distribution for conjunctivitis (n=847) (2004–2018) was Adenovirus 34%, S. aureus 25.5%, Streptococcus pneumoniae 9%, Haemophilus 9%, other gram-negatives 8.8%, other gram-positives 6%, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus 4.5% and Chlamydia 3.2%.
An updated monitoring of ocular pathogens creates an awareness of the different infectious etiologies and the importance of laboratory studies. This information can determine treatment needs for infectious ocular diseases.