This study aims to compare the increase in refractive error and axial length, variation of endothelium cells, and ratio of corneal staining between two regimens of high myopia–partial reduction orthokeratology (ortho-k) in children.
The present clinical prospective study recruited 102 high-myopia subjects (204 eyes). These subjects were randomly divided into three groups: (1) ortho-k group 1, subjects with a target myopia reduction of 6.00 D; (2) ortho-k group 2, subjects with a target myopia reduction of 4.00 D; and (3) control group, the refractive error of subjects was corrected using a pair of single-vision spectacles. Vision acuity, refractive error, and the cornea were examined at baseline, and at 2 days, 1 week, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after commencing lens wear. The measurement of the axial length of the eyeball and a corneal endothelium examination were performed at baseline and at 12 months.
The uncorrected vision acuities improved in subjects in these groups after treatment with ortho-k. Furthermore, the diopters of myopia and corneal curvature significantly decreased at 1 month, and the values continuously improved at 12 months, when compared with subjects at 1 month (P<0.05). Subjects in the control group had a significant increase in refractive error (0.565±0.313 D) and axial length (0.294±0.136 mm), when compared with subjects in the ortho-k–treated groups (P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in changes in refractive error and axial length between ortho-k groups 1 (0.101±0.176 mm) and 2 (0.123±0.193 mm) at 12 months (P>0.05). Furthermore, subjects in group 1 (28.97%) had a higher rate of corneal staining, when compared with subjects in group 2 (13.06%) (P<0.05).
The two ortho-k regimens, target reduction of 6.00 D and target of 4.00 D, had similar effects in controlling the increase in axial length and refractive error in high-myopia children. However, subjects with a target myopia reduction of 6.00 D had a higher rate of corneal staining than in subjects with a target myopia reduction of 4.00 D.