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Progress and Control of Myopia by Light Environments

Jiang, Xiaoyan, M.D.; Kurihara, Toshihide, M.D., Ph.D.; Torii, Hidemasa, M.D., Ph.D.; Tsubota, Kazuo, M.D., Ph.D.

doi: 10.1097/ICL.0000000000000548
Review Article

Abstract: During the past 30 years, the prevalence rate of myopia has been increased dramatically. Myopia has become one of the leading causes of vision loss in some countries, whereas the mechanism of the main pathological change in myopia is still largely unknown. Although several studies showed genetic background influences the phenotype of myopia to some extent, the sudden increase of morbidity cannot be explained by genetics only. The change in lifestyle results in tremendous change in the light environment, which can be considered to play an important role in the onset and progression of myopia. The difference between indoor and outdoor light environments such as intensity and wavelength of modern electronic lighting equipment may be a cue for myopia control as environmental factors. In this review, we discuss the relationship between myopia and light environment focusing on the basic and clinical studies.

Laboratory of Photobiology (X.J., K.T., H.T.), Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; and Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan (T.K., H.T., K.T.).

Address correspondence to Kazuo Tsubota, M.D., Ph.D and Toshihide Kurihara, M.D., Ph.D, Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan; e-mail:

The design of the mouse eyeglass has been applied for a patent (Application no. 201741349).

Supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) to T. Kurihara. This work is also supported by the grant for myopia research from Tsubota Laboratory, Inc. (Tokyo, Japan).

Accepted July 09, 2018

© 2018 Contact Lens Association of Ophthalmologists, Inc.