Association of keratoconus (KC) with genetic predisposition and environmental factors has been well documented. However, no single study has investigated the possible relationship between ABO and Rh blood groups and KC.
A case–control study was designed in a university hospital enrolling 214 patients with KC in the case group and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects in the control group. Primary characteristics, ABO blood group, and Rh factors were compared between the two groups. Topographic findings of KC eyes and the severity of the diseases were investigated according to the distribution of the blood groups.
Blood group O and Rh+ phenotype were most frequent in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of ABO blood groups or Rh factors. Mean keratometery (K), central corneal thickness, thinnest corneal thickness, flat K, steep K, sphere and cylinder, spherical equivalent, and uncorrected visual acuity were all similar between ABO blood groups and Rh+ and Rh− groups. However, the best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) had the highest value in AB blood group (0.35±0.22 logMAR, P=0.005). Moreover, the blood group AB revealed the highest frequency for grade 3 KC, followed by grades 1, 2, and 4 (P=0.003).
We observed no significant excess of any particular blood group among KC cases compared with healthy subjects. Except BCVA, none of the keratometric or topographic findings was significantly different between blood groups.