*Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts;
†Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Spaulding Research Institute, Charlestown, Massachusetts;
‡Home Base, A Red Sox Foundation and Massachusetts General Hospital Program, Charlestown, Massachusetts;
§MassGeneral Hospital for Children Sports Concussion Program, Boston, Massachusetts;
¶Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts;
║Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Villanova University, Villanova, Pennsylvania;
**Department of Computer Science, Colby College, Waterville, Maine;
††Division of Emergency Medicine, Brain Injury Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts;
‡‡Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts;
§§Health Services and the Department of Biology, Colby College, Waterville, Maine;
¶¶Neurosciences Program, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, AB, Canada;
║║Departments of Pediatrics, Clinical Neurosciences, and Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; and
***Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
Corresponding Author: Grant L. Iverson, PhD, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Center for Health and Rehabilitation Research, Harvard Medical School, 79/96, 13th St, Charlestown Navy Yard, Charlestown, MA 02129 ([email protected]).
G.L. Iverson acknowledges unrestricted philanthropic support from ImPACT Applications, Inc, the Mooney-Reed Charitable Foundation, Boston Bolts, Heinz Family Foundation, and Spaulding Research Institute. P.D. Berkner acknowledges funding for the Maine Concussion Management Initiative from the Goldfarb Center for Public Policy and Civic Engagement/Colby College and the Bill and Joan Alfond Foundation. B.L. Brooks is a principal investigator, coinvestigator, or collaborator on several grants relating to the study of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI)/concussion in youth. He acknowledges salary support from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Embedded Clinician Research Award. He receives royalties for the sales of the Pediatric Forensic Neuropsychology textbook (2012, Oxford University Press) and pediatric neuropsychological tests [Child and Adolescent Memory Profile (Sherman and Brooks, 2015, PAR Inc), Memory Validity Profile (Sherman and Brooks, 2015, PAR Inc), and Multidimensional Everyday Memory Ratings for Youth (Sherman and Brooks, 2017, PAR Inc)]. He has previously received in-kind support (free test credits) from a different computerized cognitive test publisher (CNS Vital Signs, Chapel Hill, North Carolina). G.L. Iverson has been reimbursed by the government, professional scientific bodies, and commercial organizations for discussing or presenting research relating to mild TBI and sport-related concussion at meetings, scientific conferences, and symposiums. He has a clinical and consulting practice in forensic neuropsychology involving individuals who have sustained mild TBIs (including athletes). He has received research funding from several test publishing companies, including ImPACT Applications, Inc, CNS Vital Signs, and Psychological Assessment Resources (PAR, Inc). He serves as a scientific advisor for Sway Operations, LLC, Highmark, Inc, and BioDirection, Inc. R. Zafonte and G.L. Iverson have received salary support from the Harvard Integrated Program to Protect and Improve the Health of National Football League Players Association Members. R. Zafonte acknowledges unrestricted philanthropic support from the Heinz Family Foundation. R. Zafonte serves on the Scientific Advisory Board of Myomo, Oxeia Pharma, and ElMInda. None of the authors nor their family members have a commercial or proprietary interest in ImPACT. All authors approved the final manuscript as submitted and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. The remaining authors report no conflicts of interest.
G.L. Iverson: conceptualized the study, conceptualized the statistical analyses, drafted several parts of the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript. N.E. Cook: helped draft the manuscript, conducted the statistical analyses, critically reviewed the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript. I.G. Gilman: helped draft the manuscript, critically reviewed the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript. B. Maxwell: helped design and coordinate data collection, managed the database of participants, and approved the final manuscript. R. Mannix: consulted about the study, reviewed/revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript. R. Zafonte: consulted about the study, reviewed/revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript. P.D. Berkner: helped design and coordinate data collection, wrote the institutional review board, conceptualized the overall project, and edited/approved the final manuscript. B.L. Brooks: helped conceptualize the study and statistical analyses, helped draft the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript.