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Predicting Clinical Concussion Measures at Baseline Based on Motivation and Academic Profile

Trinidad, Katrina J. MA, ATC*; Schmidt, Julianne D. MA, ATC; Register-Mihalik, Johna K. PhD, ATC; Groff, Diane EdD, LRT, CTRS; Goto, Shiho MS, ATC; Guskiewicz, Kevin M. PhD, ATC

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: November 2013 - Volume 23 - Issue 6 - p 462–469
doi: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e318295e425
Original Research

Objective: The purpose of this study was to predict baseline neurocognitive and postural control performance using a measure of motivation, high school grade point average (hsGPA), and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: Clinical research center.

Participants: Eighty-eight National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I incoming student-athletes (freshman and transfers).

Interventions: Participants completed baseline clinical concussion measures, including a neurocognitive test battery (CNS Vital Signs), a balance assessment [Sensory Organization Test (SOT)], and motivation testing (Rey Dot Counting). Participants granted permission to access hsGPA and SAT total score.

Main Outcome Measures: Standard scores for each CNS Vital Signs domain and SOT composite score.

Results: Baseline motivation, hsGPA, and SAT explained a small percentage of the variance of complex attention (11%), processing speed (12%), and composite SOT score (20%).

Conclusions: Motivation, hsGPA, and total SAT score do not explain a significant amount of the variance in neurocognitive and postural control measures but may still be valuable to consider when interpreting neurocognitive and postural control measures.

*Dunn Physical Therapy, Cary, North Carolina;

Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; and

Clinical Research Unit, Emergency Services Institute, WakeMed Health and Hospitals, Raleigh, North Carolina.

Corresponding Author: Kevin M. Guskiewicz, PhD, ATC, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of North Carolina, 209 Fetzer Hall, CB#8700, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8700 (

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Received October 05, 2012

Accepted April 04, 2013

Copyright © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.