To analyze injury frequency, density, location, type, mechanism of injury (MOI), activity phase of injury, and injury risk in professional rodeo.
Retrospective epidemiological review.
Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association sanctioned rodeos from 2011 to 2014.
Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association competitors competing in bull riding, bareback riding, saddle bronc riding, team roping, tie-down roping, and steer wrestling.
Main Outcome Measures:
Injury reports were documented by sports medicine personnel. Variables assessed include event, frequency, density, location, type, MOI, activity phase of injury, and injury density.
A total of 2305 injuries from 139,098 competitor exposures (CEs) were reported, demonstrating overall injury density of 16.6 injuries per 1000 CEs (95% confidence interval, 0.016-0.017) and overall risk of injury of 1.69%. Rough stock riders accounted for 88.7% of all injuries. Bull riders, bareback riders, and saddle bronc riders demonstrated injury densities of 48.2, 41.1, and 23.2 injuries per 1000 CEs, respectively. Most injuries (62.9%) were sustained by collisions with the ground or animal, or being stomped on by the animal. Contusions, sprains, and concussions were the most frequent injury types (23.1%, 13.6%, and 11.6%, respectively). Neurological components, knees, and shoulders were the most injured body parts (13.4%, 11.1%, and 11.0%, respectively). Most injuries (36.8%) occurred during or immediately after the dismount.
Rough stock events have the greatest risk of injury in professional rodeo, whereas steer wrestling has the greatest risk of injury for timed event athletes. Medical professionals should use these findings to implement prevention programming where possible.