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Exploring Gaps in Concussion Knowledge and Knowledge Translation Among Coaches of Youth Female Hockey

Guo, David MScOT*; Verweel, Lee MSc†,‡; Reed, Nick PhD*,†,‡

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: November 2019 - Volume 29 - Issue 6 - p 486–493
doi: 10.1097/JSM.0000000000000542
Original Research

Objective: To better understand the level of concussion knowledge of youth female hockey coaches and to identify preferred methods of knowledge translation for this population.

Design: Cross-sectional survey.

Setting: Participants independently completed written surveys before in-person concussion information sessions or online surveys through link provided in emails.

Participants: Convenience sampling yielded 130 coaches of youth female hockey from Canada.

Main Outcome Measures: Knowledge level on concussion, resources from which coaches obtained information on concussion, opinions on the current level of concussion knowledge, and knowledge translation.

Results: Coaches demonstrated adequate knowledge on concussion, achieving 84% correct on true–false questions and 92% correct on symptom identification accuracy. However, coaches showed limited awareness of concussion specific to mechanisms for injury (identification) and postconcussion symptoms. Internet resources were rated as the most used resources for concussion yet were not rated very helpful. Nonetheless, coaches indicated online courses and web sites as the most preferred method for concussion knowledge translation.

Conclusions: Youth female hockey coaches have overall adequate knowledge of concussion; however, gaps in knowledge do exist. Future efforts to raise the concussion knowledge among coaches of female youth hockey should include information specific to the mechanism of injury, along with sign and symptom identification, with particular attention paid to emotional symptoms. Given the reported preferences and the widespread availability of the Internet, further exploration and research validation of online courses and web sites tailored to the youth female hockey community is encouraged.

*Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada;

Rehabilitation Science Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; and

Bloorview Research Institute, Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Corresponding Author: Nick Reed, PhD, Bloorview Research Institute, Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, 150 Kilgour Rd Toronto, ON M4G 1R8, Canada (

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Received November 15, 2016

Accepted September 19, 2017

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