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Creatine Kinase Levels During Preseason Camp in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Athletes

Smoot, M. Kyle MD*,†; Cavanaugh, Joseph E. PhD; Amendola, Annunziato MD†,§; West, Douglas R. PhD, ATC; Herwaldt, Loreen A. MD‖,**,††

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: September 2014 - Volume 24 - Issue 5 - p 438–440
doi: 10.1097/JSM.0000000000000057
Brief Report
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Objective: To investigate mean creatine kinase (CK) levels in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I football athletes and the relationship between mean CK levels and demographic variables.

Design: Observational cohort.

Setting: NCAA Division I football program.

Participants: NCAA Division I football athletes.

Interventions: Blood and urine samples were obtained from 32 athletes on the first (time 1), third (time 2), and seventh (time 3) days of football camp.

Main Outcome Measures: Mean CK levels. The hypotheses were formulated before the data were collected.

Results: All urine samples tested negative for blood. Mean CK levels were 284.7 U/L at time 1, 1299.8 U/L at time 2, and 1562.4 U/L at time 3. The increases in means were statistically significant (P < 0.005 for all pairwise comparisons). Most demographic variables were not related to mean CK levels. The number of days in the precamp conditioning program was negatively associated with mean CK levels (P = 0.0284).

Conclusions: Mean CK levels in NCAA Division I football athletes during camp were higher than the serological criteria for rhabdomyolysis commonly used in clinical practice. More data are needed to assess if the number of days of participation in precamp conditioning is related to lower CK levels in NCAA Division I football athletes during camp.

*Department of Family Medicine; and

Institute for Orthopaedics, Sports Medicine & Rehabilitation, The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa;

Department of Biostatistics, The University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa;

§Department of Orthopaedics & Rehabilitation, The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa;

Department of Athletics, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa;

Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, Iowa; and

**Department of Epidemiology; and

††Program of Hospital Epidemiology, The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa.

Corresponding Author: M. Kyle Smoot, MD, Department of Family Medicine, The University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 01106 PFP, 200 Hawkins Dr, Iowa City, IA 52242-1097 (kyle-smoot@uiowa.edu).

The authors report no conflicts of interest.

Received March 22, 2013

Accepted October 09, 2013

© 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins