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The Relationship Between Anterior Glenohumeral Laxity and Proprioception in Collegiate Baseball Players

Laudner, Kevin G. PhD, ATC*,†; Meister, Keith MD; Kajiyama, Satoshi MS, ATC*; Noel, Bria ATC*

Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: November 2012 - Volume 22 - Issue 6 - p 478–482
doi: 10.1097/JSM.0b013e31826903f5
Original Research

Objective: To determine if a relationship exists between anterior glenohumeral (GH) laxity and proprioception.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: University biomechanics laboratory.

Participants: Thirty asymptomatic collegiate baseball players.

Independent Variables: Anterior GH laxity.

Main Outcome Measures: Proprioception (active joint position sense) at positions of 75 degrees of external rotation, 30 degrees of external rotation, and 30 degrees of internal rotation were measured using an isokinetic dynomometer. Anterior GH laxity was measured using an instrumented arthrometer.

Results: Linear regression analyses showed that there were no relationships between anterior GH laxity and active joint position sense at 30 degrees of GH internal rotation and 30 degrees of GH external rotation (r = 0.21, P = 0.13). However, there was a moderate positive relationship between anterior GH laxity and joint position sense at 75 degrees of shoulder external rotation (r = 0.56, P = 0.001).

Conclusions: These results suggest that shoulder proprioception in 75 degrees of external rotation decreases as anterior GH laxity increases. These results may prove beneficial in the prevention, evaluation, and treatment of various shoulder injuries associated with GH laxity.

*School of Kinesiology and Recreation, Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois

Texas Metroplex Institute for Sports Medicine and Orthopedics, Arlington, Texas.

Corresponding Author: Kevin G. Laudner, PhD, ATC, Illinois State University, School of Kinesiology and Recreation, Campus Box 5120, Normal, IL 61790 (

Supported by a grant from the Illinois Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance.

Investigation was performed at Illinois State University, Normal, Illinois.

Received March 21, 2012

Accepted June 26, 2012

© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.